Students can also equally be de-motivated by too low level of challenge. From Krashen’s affective filter hypothesis (as cited in Lightbown and Spada, 1999, p. 39), emotional states such as tiredness, depression, boredom, etc obstruct the learning process of the students. Anxiety becomes a
2.2 Self -esteem and foreign language learning Much less written about the construct of self-esteem and foreign language learning, it is make an importance in education psychology as a critical factor in children’s academic and social development. This chapter is about a ground breaking experience linking self-esteem and language learning. It shows how self-esteem can affect language learning and how it can be used as a tool for improving language acquisition while fulfilling other educational goals such as personal development and social integration. Many times, as teacher, we feel that our lessons did not succeed in spite of careful planning, good preparation and knowledge of the subject. We know something went wrong, yet we can’t say
Many researchers try to figure out the effects of correcting students on their psychology and on their language learning process. It has been discussed that whether correcting students is useful or a waste of time. First, in order to be able to discuss positive and negative sides of correcting students, we should highlight the difference between "mistake" and "error". Mistakes are natural and performance based, they are generally accidental and come out through a slip of tongue. On the other hand, errors occur due to lack of knowledge.
Shaky identity and lack of confidence can lead to poor decision-making. Students given conditional positive regard may learn to think of themselves as being worthwhile only when they are behaving in socially approved ways. Their self-esteem may become shaky, as it comes to depend on what other people think of them at a particular moment in time. To maintain self-esteem, they may need to deny their genuine feelings, interests, and desires. They learn to wear masks or to don social facades to please others.
Those who are more highly motivated to achieve are likely to respond well to challenging assignments, strict grading corrective feedback, new or unusual problems and the chance to try again. But, less challenging assignments, simple reinforcement for success, small steps for each task, lenient grading and protections from embarrassment are probably more successful strategies for those students who are very eager to avoid failure. At this point, the significance of early academic motivation to future academic success should be clear. However, different types of academic motivation have different implications for academic achievement. If a student has high levels of academic motivation, knowing whether that student is extrinsically or intrinsically motivated may be important in making predictions about those students?
This trait is self-conscious, shy, and weak in critical thinking skills, analytic ability and conceptual understanding. According to Zhang (2003), extroverts select pragmatic learning concepts and dodge critical thinking. Hence, high neuroticism students may obtain low scores in social, cognitive and teaching presences. They tend to shy away from group discussion, and student-centred approach may be a problem with them as they prefer highly structured learning environment to avoid anxiety caused by time pressure. Conscientiousness, this trait is responsible, organised, careful, hardworking, achievement-oriented and persevering.
This belief or confidence determine how people think, feel and also behave (Bandura, 1997)). Self-efficacy is a crucial part of self-system. (Bandura, 1994). In the some researches made Self-Efficacy is directly related with Job Satisfaction and Work Performance in a positive way. (Erkus, 2013) and there is a negative correlation between Self-Efficacy and Intention to quit (Erkus, 2013) Bandura reports that people feeling strong level of self-efficacy can see difficult issues as tasks to be achievable, show deeper interest in the actions exhibit high level commitment to these interest recover quickly from issues even from disappointments.
Kahneman, Slovic and Tversky (1982) for example, suggest that taking risks can have an essentially negative result because the learner might be involved in a loss or failure situation. Consequently, the notion of risk taking tends to be related to an unfavorable circumstance that may obstruct oral communication in a second language. It is also possible that risk takers sacrifice accuracy for the sake of speed in speech production (Dewaele & Furnham, 1999), which might lead the learner to produce poor linguistic output. Suffice it to say, high levels of risk taking influence other areas, e.g., self-esteem, enthusiasm to communicate and confidence, which may put the learner in a vulnerable position. In other words, the more risks a learner takes, the more chances he has to be emotionally constrained.
Students react to this differential treatment in such a manner as to confirm the originally erroneous expectation. Step1: Teachers develop erroneous expectations (Lee Jusmin) Because accurate expectations cannot be self-fulfilling, they start with inaccurate expectations. Why do teachers’ expectations go
The meaning of reward is a matter that has been given to a person from a good level of performance. According to (skinner, 1969) is an appreciation. appreciation is inter-related aspects with values that meet the needs of the individual. the behave or of a given appreciation has a high probability to repeat. While meaning of intrinsic reward is intrinsic reward involves helping employees or students who find success and satisfaction in an act.