While the uses and gratifications theory primarily represents a bottom-up approach, examining the motivations behind the interaction of people with media, institutional mediatization can be seen as a top-down approach. It argues that culture and society increasingly depend on media and that institutions within society are altered through their logic (Bolin, 2014). Moreover, "media have become integrated into the operations of other social institutions, while they also have acquired the status of social institutions in their own right" (Bolin, 2014, p. 177). It shows that media influence social spheres at the same time from the inside and outside, but are never truly separated as they are developed in a preexisting cultural framework. The case
Social structure theories look at the formal and informal economic and social arrangements of society that cause crime and deviance. The negative aspects of social structure such as disorganization within a family, poverty, and disadvantages because of lack of success in educational areas are looked upon as the producers of criminal behavior (Schmalleger, 2012). The three major types of social structure theories are Social Disorganization, Strain, and Culture Conflict (Schmalleger, 2012). Social disorganization theory is based on the idea that changes, conflict, and the lack of social consensus in society are the reasons for criminal behavior. This theory views society as a living organism and that criminal behavior is compared to a disease.
The mixed model of emotional intelligence postulated by Goleman (1995) is also known as emotional intelligence theory of performance because the model consists of sets of competences and skills that drive organisational performance and leadership performance. These sets of skills or competences which are the constructs or clusters of the model are self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management. 1. Self-awareness: This construct encompasses self-confidence, self-assessment, self-deprecating sense of humour and thirst for constructive criticism. It is the ability to read and understand one’s emotion in view of its strength, weakness, values and goals as well as recognising their impacts on others.
The model proposes that people receive the messages transmitted through media wholly as intended. The receiver is passive and does not have the power to sieve what they would like to ingest and what they would not. The tenets of the theory suggest that all people respond the same way to stimuli transmitted through media (Wimmer & Dominick, 2013). For example, it assumes that if people are watching a romantic movie on television, their reaction to the movie will be the same. One critic of the model is in respect to this tenet because it disregards the influence of culture in the interpretation of messages.
Naturally an agent is influenced by many factors other than visible surrounding environment, for example, the personality traits, past memories or experiences etc. Our proposed model is event based considering the visible happened event. In this paper, we have proposed a domain independent emotion elicitation and emotion transition model called EmET. The model is based upon well known appraisal theories of emotions. Moreover, if no external event occurs, the intensity of emotion decays with time.
Mediums of mass media covers a wide variety like newspapers, television, books, films, fashion trends even politics. With that in mind, mass media can become an aid in constructing our perceptions of reality both as a mirror and a driving force and society trends. While popular culture or pop culture for short, is the connection and consumption of mass media to gain knowledge such as information, entertainment and news the culture also looks into trends in society as well as ideas and opinions of others. This then forms one’s own perspective and their identity. One sphere of influence can be attributed to the political influence caused by entertainers in the Japanese mass media scene.
2.2.1 Elaboration Likelihood Model Introduced by social psychologists Richard Petty and John Cacioppo in the early 1980’s, the Elaboration Likelihood Model explains the cognitive process of the audience underlying the attitude change and persuasion. The model describes the process of elaboration and the factors that contribute to the likelihood that someone will elaborate on a piece of information. In terms of advertising, advertisers would like the consumers to elaborate the information showed in the advertisements so that they actively think about the products and brand. It will also show the effectiveness of the advertisements and the attitude of viewers towards the advertisements. The ELM framework has been employed in a wide range of
Thirdly, the social dominance theory (SDT) is a general intergroup theory of social hierarchy and oppression. Sidanius & Pratto (1999) argue that there are three basic systems of disproportionate social power based on age, gender and arbitrary-set systems. Dominance is driven by three main processes: Aggregated individual discrimination, which refers to daily, quite inconspicuous individual
An Analysis of the Elaboration Likelihood Model – Applications and Limitations Introduction In the contemporary society we live in today, we are constantly faced with instances where mass media messages attempt to persuade us on something. It would not be possible for us to pay the same amount of attention to every one of these messages thus, we select some messages to pay more attention to and deal with others in less detail. A model of persuasion that acknowledges these two different means of processing messages is Petty and Cacioppo’s (1986) elaboration likelihood model (ELM). (Severin & Tankard, 2014) The ELM states that there are two routes to attitude change – the central route and the peripheral route. The central route takes place
Perceived ease-of-use (PEOU) – Davis defined this as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort" (Davis 1989). The technology acceptance model (TAM)is possibly the most widely-used framework in the field of IS for measuring technology acceptance, and its high validity has been proven in many previous studies. The TAM has been continuously studied and it expanded the two major updates being the TAM 2 and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. A TAM 3 has also been proposed in the context of e-commerce with an addition of the effects of trust and perceived risk on system use .TAM is one of the most influential extensions of Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action (TRA) in the literature. Davis’s technology acceptance model (Davis, 1989; Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw, 1989) is the most widely applied model of users' acceptance and usage of technology (Venkatesh, 2000).It was developed by Fred Davis and Richard Bagozzi (Davis 1989, Bagozzi, Davis & Warshaw 1992).