That may be because I am more familiar with it and I am used to say it only in my mother tongue. As Anna Wierzbicka writes ,“two languages of a bilingual person differ not only in their lexical and grammatical repertoires for expressing and describing emotions but also in the sets of ‘emotional scripts’ regulating emotion talk” . Perhaps, for a bilingual person, a word has not always its authentical meaning in a foreign language as it has always been thought it would have in its native
Education and bilingualism can not totally interpret the meaning of bilingual education. There are many aspects that demand a multidisciplinary comprehending of bilingual education. The use of bilingual education can be use outside of the classroom. There are fields of bilingual education can be used in philosophy, history, economics, and, notably, politics as well as language planning. For example, bilingual helps to assimilate native and migratory minorities, which is a means of language planning.
Bilingualism does not only refer to knowing phonological, lexical and syntactical aspects of language. Instead, it also demands being aware of sociolinguistic aspects of language use such as regional and social dialect. Hence, being bilingual is a matter of being communicatively able in two or more languages, being comfortable using one or the other and being able to code switch properly, according to the interlocutor and context of communication. Causes of bilingualism might also lead biliteracy. Nowadays, many people are raised or immersed in societies which provide a language different from their home language.
1. Introduction At times, people would borrow words and ideas from other works to fit specific situations and purposes. Whether conscious or not, they are using intertextuality. Originally coined and developed by the poststructuralist Julia Kristeva (1986) in 1966, the term intertextuality has been widely accepted and used in the field of modern and postmodern literary criticism. In their Introduction to Text Linguistics, De Beaugrande and Dressler (2002) state that intertextuality “concerns the factors which make the utilization of one text dependent upon knowledge of one or more previously encountered texts”.
In the process of acquiring the first language we learn how to accommodate our articulatory apparatus in order to produce the phonemes, interestingly, when speaking the native language we almost never think how the sounds are articulated. Of course, not all of the languages have the same phonemes; some of which have a direct counterpart or a similar sounding phoneme, while others do not exist in the L2. English language for example has 26 letters and 44 phonemes as compared to Spanish with 29 letters and 24 phonemes and to Russian with 33 letters and 42 phonemes (cite footnote). When learning the L2, learners tend to use the same ‘pronunciation tools’ as in speech production of their mother tongue, therefore distorting the sounds of L2. Thus researches (e.g.
Linguists and researchers as Purcell, Lee, Biffin, Baker distinguish other division of bilingualism and bilingual education. The basic division of bilingualism into compound, coordinate, balanced and dominant, has been already mentioned however there are some other criteria defining the division of bilingualism. Baker (2001) introduced several types of bilingual education programmes that are spread worldwide. Nowadays a lot of schools follow the curriculum based on the bilingual programmes invented by Baker. These programmes include the ways of learning foreign languages, the programmes reinforcing the target language or the programmes retaining the mother tongue at the first place and developing the target
This article mainly focuses on the language transfer and fossilization, while also discussing the way in which error analysis and error correction can be improved through understanding of the concept of interlanguage. Moreover, native speaker norms, as well as international varieties of English are also discussed in this research. I believe that the research conducted by Nickel is a great addition to this bibliography because it allows some insight into the significance of the interlanguage phenomenon and helps to gain better understanding of the way in which it affects L2 learning and how it is perceived by others. Moreover, it helps to speculate about where it stands in regard to other varieties of English language and mentions a few instances in which interlanguages became institutionalized by people in certain countries. Rose, H., & Galloway, N. (2017).
2.1 SPEECH ACTS There are many theories that facilitate the analysis of spoken language. Definitely, speech act is one of those theories which notice communicative purposes between speakers and listeners. This effective tool aids learners to identify and label the differences of communicative functions through utterances of interlocutors. According to the theory as pointed out by Adolphs (2008) that particular speech act can be illocutionary, the gist of an utterance that a speaker produces, and perlocutionary, the actual purpose of the saying which can be direct and indirect. For example, the question Are you with me?
One point Swales brought up was that communication is necessary to fall under the category of a discourse community and that each discourse community must have a unique way of communicating (221). That is a way of saying that each discourse community must have their own language. If a group of people are really part of the discourse community, then they will be able to communicate fluently (Swales 221). Communication and language is a very hot topic in Gee’s article and we see that when he says, “Someone can speak English, but not fluently. However, someone cannot engage in a discourse in a less than fluent matter.
His studies indicate that after bilingualism emerges, the new language might replace the old one and lead to a language extinction. From that we can see second language or bilingualism may influence the existence of a language. However, as Tse’s four-stage model of ethnic identity development theory mainly focus on the study of minority entering societies and rarely focus on majority’s aspect, the view that children’s identities are easier to be affected by bilingualism is in lack of comprehensive evidence. Therefore, bilingualism’s influence on majority and other factors that affect an ethnic’s identity can be considered in order to identify bilingualism’s impact on identities more