Literature Review Of Carbazole

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2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Heterocyclic compound

2.1.1 Carbazole
Carbazole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. This compound has a tricyclic structure, comprising of two six membered benzene ring fused on either side of a five membered nitrogen-containing ring. The structure of compound is based on the indole structure in which a second benzene ring is fused onto the five-membered ring at the 2–3 position of indole (equivalent to the 4a–9a double bond in carbazole) (Nandy et al., 2014). Using conventional physico-chemical techniques is hard to remove this heterocyclic compound, is considered as the model compound in most of the denitrogenation studies and is produced during coal gasification (Liu et al., 2009). Several thousand tons of carbazole are produced each year from coal tar and crude oil. Carbazole is widely used in synthesis of dyes, pharmaceuticals, and plastics and found in crude oil, tar sand sources, shale oil and wood preserving wastes (Li et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2009 & Singh et al., 2010). Carbazole and its derivatives being carcinogenic and mutagenic, readily undergo radical chemistry to generate the more genotoxic hydroxynitrocarbazoles. Therefore, microbes that can degrade carbazole serve a dual purpose of bioremediation and biorefining (Singh et al., 2010).
2.1.2 Dibenzothiophene
According to Teh (2004), dibenzothiophene is sulfur heterocyclic. It is a heterocyclic compound has tricyclic structure consisting of two benzene rings fused to a

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