Adlerian Play Therapy is a counseling intervention rooted from individual psychology which incorporates nondirective and directive play techniques (Meany-Walen et al., 2014). A survey of the American Counseling Association and the Association for Play Therapy membership indicated that Adlerian theory was one of the most commonly used theoretical perspectives used by child counselors (Meany-Walen et al., 2014). In the process of Adlerian Play Therapy, children are given the opportunity to practice social skills and get to experiment with new thoughts and feelings. The author’s state Adlerian play therapists allow children to directly or indirectly rehearse their changing perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors through appropriate
The term ‘functionalist perspective’ itself was not a familiar one, but what I already knew was that our emotions determine our behaviour and this is vital for one’s own health, well-being and determines our behaviour. These social interactions assist children make meaning of the world they live in. This underpins the concept of ‘functionalist perspective’. Again, though not familiar with the term ‘social constructivist perspective’, I know that children make meaning of the world around them through their interactions. This concept is explored in-depth in the Early Years Learning Framework
Firstly through; being very attentive to the children, identifying their needs, while also noticing and understanding variances in their behaviour and responding accordingly. In correlation to this teachers should develop self-awareness to separate their own feelings from those of the children Lillard (2005). Secondly, observation is used to evaluate children‘s interests, for instance, the teacher would note whether or not the child is interested in an object, how he/she displays this interest and how long they are interested in it. As a result, teachers could also use observations to assess children‘s work in progress, though this must be done subtly as even a glance could disrupt the concentration of a child engaged on a
The first dimension related to efficacious role played by parents to enhance honouring social norms, values and conventions which parents expect their children to adopt whereas the second dimension is the emotional ties between parents and their children (Dwairy et al., 2006; Power, 2013). Baumrind had identified three behavioural patterns in preschool children: firstly, was “assertive, self-reliant, self-controlled, buoyant, and affiliative”. Secondly, “discontented, withdrawn, and distrustful”. Thirdly, “little self-control or self-reliance, and retreat from novelty” (Baumrind, 1967; Power,
Goodnow (1977) and Sandow (1997) described how drawings can be viewed as an expression of emotions and offer an insight into the child’s personality. These drawings can be used to analyse a variety of emotions and perceptions (Furth, 1988). However, since the human mind is very complex, the results accumulated through any one method of analysis should not be generalized to the entire population. This is pointed out by Banister et al. (1995) who support the use of drawings as a technique to explore the personality of these children, but consider that they should be used in conjunction with other
Parental involvement may physically occur at school, at home, or in both settings. They also will be influence to send their kids to the pre-school education from words of mouth, neighborhood, caliphs and parents background. Involvement of parents or known as parental engagement is parent participation in academic learning including a regular, two-way communication with educators. 1.7.2 Children The important of early education to children is avoiding an abbreviation of Literacy and Numeracy Screening (LINUS). Also, the children will interact more with others children.
Analysis 2 was about how other people (teachers) regarded them in similar–different dimension of schooling, after schooling. Analysis 3 was about interpreting the school environment within the 2 groups of children. The understanding gained from theory triangulation indicates that the behavioral/psychological and social are the relevant levels of theorizing. These levels are also relevant to the setting of the research agenda for both explanation- and intervention- based knowledge regarding children’s needs and perceptions, from the perspectives of this sample of teachers and children(Verheggen, 2011) 3.8. Ethical
If a student wants to add a word to his or her active vocabulary, they should know the context in which it can be used and just memorizing a word is not important. A teacher should have information about the learning process .Susan House (1997) stated that if a teacher knows how students would learn they can teach better. There are three perspectives about development of vocabularies: a. Behaviorist's point of view which believed language learner would learn it out of the environment. Behaviorists like Skinner (2004) argued that language is a habit formation process. According to to Brewer (2001) students are like a newborn baby who would listen to the words of others and try to imitate them.
A warm caring relationship needs to have developed between the two to support learning. The theory Linked educational and emotional development as one. (Smith, A. 2013) Another important term used within the theory is Scaffolding, this refers to the help and guidance given to the child by the teacher. Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development suggests that children move through four different stages of mental development.
The Key Stage outcome of the framework emphasizes the need to build confidence and social skills in their early years to prepare them for lifelong learning (MOE, 2003). Hence, preschool programs focus on helping children in developing skills needed for school readiness to primary school. Teachers provide opportunities for children to experience real-life situations using pretend play to encourage higher order thinking and enhance problem solving and social skills (Lee, 2012). Schools arrange for visits to primary school, inviting Primary 1 children to talk about they experiences, reading stories about ‘starting school’ and teachers introduce routines of formal schooling. There is also collaboration between preschool and primary school to further cater the needs of children during transition process (Marjory,