Within the George Mead’s theory of Mind, Self and Society, he said that the self is made up of 2 components: the “me” represents expectations, attitudes and learnt behaviors of others in society. The individual’s defines their behavior depending on the generalized attitude of the social group(s) they occupy. The “me” is what prevents someone from breaking rules or crossing boundaries of society’s expectations. The “I” is the self-thinking, it is under your control and the response to “me”. (Aboulafia ,2016) The “I” would say that society says that I should behave like this, then so shall it be or I will rebel against that order by behaving differently.
‘Social norms’ are the foundational notions of the society (Horne 2007), defined as – “that each individual in the society finds it in his interest to follow the social standard behaviour”. i.e., norms are the “acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group’s members” (Robbins 1989), which effectively controls the individual and group behaviour in certain social situations (Hackman 1976). It refers to a form of informal social control (Feldman 1984) that obviates the need for more formal, legal and institutionalised sanctions. Adding to it, Onyx and Bullen (2000) defines that, “generally unwritten but commonly understood formulas determining the expected pattern of behaviour in a given social context which forms
I will also illustrate the ways ethnic Chinese groups nest different layers of identities (national identity or pan-Chinese identity) within each other. While agreeing with Barth’s and Brubaker’s idea, Wimmer (2013, 2-3) claims boundary making should be based on contexts because ethnicity may matter in certain societies but not in others. Thus, he provides a comparative analysis of ethnic boundary making. In his recent book Ethnic Boundary Making (2013) Wimmer identifies patterns of variations and provides a variety of boundary-making strategies (chap 3), including expansion, contraction, transvaluation, repositioning,
The traditional Chinese cultures have a development process for thousand years, now we are creating another kind of traditional culture especially under the wave of globalization. Although the form of expressing or performing the culture experienced some changes but the basic idea and belief behind rarely changed. To promote Chinese culture we would refer to the essence of Chinese wisdom so the following is actual practicing of different dimensions of Chinese traditions which show the beauty of China. The family concept is the essence of Chinese culture. From ancient China to modern, the idea of family is always associated with love and harmonious which is also the basis of our nation and our country, therefore, I would like to include this
Legitimacy in authoritarian regimes is often explained merely through the economic performance of the country: economic growth is deemed to be the main basis for legitimacy. This is arguably an oversimplification of the issue of legitimacy in authoritarian countries, like China. China, in fact, has been the object of debate and research regarding the ways the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) manages to hold its grip on power. Scholars have therefore challenged the equation “legitimacy=economic growth” by adding other elements to the formula and presenting new methodologies to research legitimacy in China. This literature review gives an overview of the debates on how to measure legitimacy and the strategies the CCP uses to build support.
Charles Tilly had the idea that people have rational choices to make to defend their deeds (Tilly 2005: 24). With respect to his ideas, Culture creates, transforms and in many cases, ties and binds social boundaries in the society. Depending on the kind of bond made, culture variation can distinguish people into ethnic groups, races, religions.
The fundamental goal of social control is to maintain social order and the everyday behaviours on which individuals base their lives. One method for implementing rules are through sanctions. Sanctions can be sure and also negative. Positive sanctions are prizes given for fitting in with standards. Negative sanctions are disciplines for disregarding standards.
Nevertheless, populism, for İlkay Sunar, has some common points. It consist of trends of ideologies which question the dominant power by sharing common cultural elements. The patronage relations is crucial to sustain the support of the people through delivering benefits (Sunar, 1984: 2076-7). The populism, from this point of view could be observable with the rise of Democrat Party. However, at this point, Zafer Toprak makes another distinction between intellectual populism and political populism.
Self-efficacy is based in a great theoretical framework known as Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), in which there are bidirectional communications between the cognitive, behavioral and environmental or situational contexts (Wood & Bandura, 1989). Self-efficacy beliefs are not a stable attribute of an individual, but they are an active and learned system of beliefs held in context. The thought of self-efficacy is interested with judgments of one’s ability to produce a given pattern of behavior (Schunk, 1981). Social cognitive hypothesis is developed from the view of human agency. In this view, individuals are measured as factors who are contained in their own progression and, by means of their actions, they are able to make things happens.
They tried to examine response strategies to a crisis among Chinese PR practitioners, and the main sociocontextual factors that contribute to the employment of these strategies. They concluded that most PR practitioners confirmed that “barnacle” strategy, “third party endorsement” and “setting up new topics” are based on Chinese characteristics. Thus, it is important to consider the Chinese social context before applying any theoretical framework based on Western context. In the state of Kuwait, Musallam (2004) conducted a