From the above discussion, it seemed to be clear why I chose 'Social Cognitive Theory '. This theory seemed to be supported to my study because it focused on observation which plays fundamental role to learn English. This theory believs that learning takes places through direct observation, modeling, social environment, skills, stratigies, and attitudes. In EFL classroom, teachers exhibit different behaviors (verbal and nonverbal), skills, and attitudes by creating learning environment which may influence students to learn an English language.This theory helped me to see what types of nonverbals behaviors teachers demonstrate through modeling while teaching. Similarly, this theory gave me insight to explore the aims of this study.
Schools and teachers assess students in numerous methods, for a diversity of reasons – ranging from extensive classifications of judging, sorting and ranking, to more subtle explanations, determining students’ needs and level of understanding. Educators have distinguished a very strong difference concerning summative assessment and formative assessment; however the distinction is believed to be modified between how data is generated and how assessments are used. This paper will focus on formative assessments, and the difference between formal formative and informal formative assessments. Proceeding to the observation on how assessments can be used in the classroom effectively, the aspects of assessments and procedures to follow. Concluding
Rubrics are evaluation guides that provide feedback on several different learning objectives, recognizing where a student falls into the spectrum of proficiency for each objective. Teachers should model the use of rubrics early in the class and explain to the students the importance of the holistic grading. When the students get used to the concept, they can use the rubrics to evaluate their own progress. Through the use of rubrics the teacher can receive information that reveals gaps between students’ perceived performance and actual performance (Alpert,
5.0 Conceptual/ theoretical Framework The conceptual framework are two types of approaches being practiced by teachers which are Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Grammar Translation Method (GTM) depends on teachers. Both approaches have different effects for the competency in speaking. Students gain high competency in speaking with the practice of CLT approach, but low competency with GTM approach. The study asses into the activities conducted in class and lesson presentation from teachers by practicing CLT. Data gathered through the classroom observation and interview and being analyzed based on the conceptual framework.
Instructors tailor their teaching strategies to student responses and encourage students to analyze, interpret, and predict information. Teachers also rely heavily on open-ended questions and promote extensive dialogue among students. Assessment–Constructivism calls for the elimination of grades and standardized testing. Instead, assessment becomes part of the learning process so that students play a larger role in judging their own progress (Walden University
With introduction of criteria-based assessment in our education system the term assessment will gain a new format, teachers will come across with terms as self-assessment and peer assessment. The term ‘assessment’ is associated with grading, marking, ranking or measuring. That is why peer assessment is also acquired as the process when students assess each other’s work by giving marks. However, it is not only the case when a teacher allows students to mark each other. “A reliable assessment depends on knowing what one is trying to assess and by what means one comes to an accurate
In active learning teachers are facilitators rather than one-way providers of information. The presentation of facts, so often introduced through straight lecture, is deemphasized in favor of class discussion, problem solving, cooperative learning, and writing exercises (graded and ungraded). To reshape curriculum so that it becomes culturally responsive requires that the changes challenge students to develop higher−order knowledge and skills (Villegas, 1991). Ismat Abdal−Haqq (1994) states "Curriculum that is culturally responsive capitalizes on students' cultural backgrounds rather than attempting to override or negate them." Other examples of active learning techniques include role-playing, case studies, group projects, think-pair-share, peer teaching, debates, and short demonstrations followed by class discussion.
Assessment: meaning According to me the term “assessment” is defined as the process to check how much a student has understood based on the lesson that was taught to them in class. Assessment also helps the students know how they progress in class. Assessment is a process that includes measuring improvement overtime, motivating the students to study, evaluating teacher’s method and ranking student’s capability in relation to the whole group evaluation. Importance of assessment in the teaching learning process. The assessment can benefit the students as well as benefit the teachers in many ways: For students, assessment can mean: ■ clarifying their instructors’ expectations for them ■ focusing more on learning as they
Besides a score, which gives quantitative data about how much of the material tested a student has mastered, information about student misconceptions can be determined by analyzing which distractors they chose and why. Information from assessments helps teachers determine which instructional approaches are best for certain students, what their students may already know about a given topic, and what subjects needs to be retaught. Research indicates that assessment and accountability systems are most effective when internal and external measures are coordinated by schools and districts to improve student achievement. The entire assessment and accountability system must be interconnected and aligned – assessments aligned to the standards, which
This one takes observation, self-assessment, student-to-student assessment, and journal as the assessment types to be operated. With the purpose of observing students affective factors, the instrument used is the observation guideline containing the observed behavior indicators. This observation instrument can be used by teacher to note students’ progress throughout the learning process. Besides observation conducted by teacher, affective competence assessment is also handed to students by getting them write self-assessment. The instrument for this type is self-assessment worksheet which needs to be used by students to tell their strength and weaknesses in learning.