Literature Review Of The Push And Pull Factors In Pakistan

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Literature review:
The literature studied state following are the push and pulls factors
1. Decline in the per capita share in the resources such as agricultural land and stagnating agriculture, change in technology, exhaustion of mines, timber or other resources and closure of certain industries in some of the regions.
2. Mechanization leading to unemployment.
3. Caste, political and social Discrimination.
4. Over all better facilities in urban area such as availability of jobs, better working condition, higher standard of living, better sanitation, marriage freedom and better opportunities for education.
5. Recreational, better health, transportation and communication facilities for all types of people.

A study inspects the determinants of internal migration in Faisalabad district, probit model was used for the testing which showed the results
H-1: The poorer the economic opportunities in the rural areas of Pakistan, the greater will be rural outmigration.
H-2: The greater the rates of poverty fall among the migrants’ families in the urban areas of Pakistan, the higher will be the out rural migration.
H-3: The higher the rate of poverty reduction among the migrants’ families in the rural areas of Pakistan, the greater will be the individual migration from the rural areas.
Probit model result shows that rural out-migration is positively related with objective of poverty reduction in the urban as well as rural communities. These results are counter to a micro-level wages

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