It is the process of gaining knowledge and understanding through experience, thought and the senses. You can say cognition is the product of the process of thinking and reasoning. In order to understand human cognition we have to apply Cognitive Psychology. This is because Cognitive Psychology is concerned with how we think. It is the study of human mental process and their function in thinking, feeling and human behaviour.
And one potential advantage of formal metacognitive theory is that it allows the individual to make informed choices about self – regulatory behaviours. As such Rech et. l. (1994, p.168) refers to the individuals who can make such choices as “producers of their own development”. Sources of Metacognitive Theories Content explains details as of how theories related to metacognition can bring about change. Schraw (1995) illustrates that there were three factors that could affect on metacognitive theories; cultural learning, individual construction and peer interaction.
According to Oxford Learning, cognitive learning theory is the function which is based on how a personality developments and causes information. It rotates around many causes, including memory maintenance, problem-solving skills, and the perception of learned material and thoughts skills. (“What is the definition of “cognitive learning”?”). There are 3 steps of cognitive processes. “First one is observing.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study on how does the mind works. Cognitive processes are essential to almost every daily activities, such as learning, talking, driving and counting. Learning Sciences are part of the cognitive science which emphasizes on human learning. As an educators, we have to understand how our students learn and therefore we can design instruction that makes the student learn effectively. Cognition and Learning are inseparable but they are not interchangeable (Greeno, 1996).
“Cognitive comprises of all processes by which the sensory input transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used.” Mentioned on the book entitled Cognitive Psychology written by Ulric Neisser where the term cognitive was coined in the year 1967. Neisser’s illustration became the progressive concept of cognitive processes. It tells the core focus of cognitive is on the processes of information acquisition and storage in human brains (StudyMode.com, 2014). However in the early years, Plato is known to have suggested that the brain was seat of mental processes before the “cognitive revolution” occur in the year between 1960’s and 1970s.It is usually confused between Behaviorism and Psychoanalysis; on the other hand, there is a huge difference between the three. Behaviorism focuses only on observable behaviors and Psychoanalysis relies on subjective perceptions; unlike, Cognitive is concerned with internal mental states and uses scientific research methods to study it.
INTRODUCTION Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mind and mental function which includes the internal study of a human brain that includes attention, learning, language, perception, memory, conceptual development, reasoning and decision making. It focuses on the way people process information. And focuses at how people process information they receive and how the treatment of that information leads to their responses. In other words, cognitive psychology is interested in what is happening within our minds that links stimulus (input) and response (output). They urge to know that how do they receive information about the world outside.
The general principles in this theory are; people learn by observing other people’s behavior, learning is an internal behavior which may or may not lead to a behavior, during the learning process, people need to be motivated as well for an action to happen, people set goals for themselves depending on what they have observed from others and lastly, people are able to control their actions depending on the consequences that they have observed from others (Bandura, 1986). Stone (2000:4) in his book states that the core at Banduras cognitive theory is modeling that teaches new behaviors both negative and positive implying that ‘people are products and producers of their environment’
Cognitive development is a process which enhancing the ability of learning. The cognitive theories emphasize on conscious thoughts which highlight the mental aspects of development such as logic and memory. The primary factors of cognitive theories is the structure and development of the individual’s thought processes and the means of these processes can effort the person’s understanding of the world. Therefore, the cognitive theories study on how this understanding, and the expectations it creates, can affect the individual’s behavior. There are three types of cognitive development theories in human which are Piaget’s Cognitive development theory, Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive theory and Information-Processing theory.
He disagreed with the idea that intelligence was a fixed trait and regarded cognitive development as a process which occurs due to biological maturation and interaction with the environment. He has discovered essential components and they are equilibration, assimilation and accommodation to give a breakdown of knowledge. Equilibration was the main learning source and the reason why this cognitive theory is developed. During this theory students will use previously retained information or skills to solve a problem and what they are learning in the present will help them get a deeper understanding to the solution. According to Patterson in her article, “Constructivists believe that prior knowledge impacts the learning process.
Cognitive perspectives imply that mutual interaction between students with “the mental processing of the information rather than with motivations” (Slavin, 1996 : 48) will improve students’ academic achievement. The two perspectives, namely, cognitive development and elaboration are discussed in the following paragraphs to examine comprehensively their effects on student learning. The two cognitive perspectives explained in the following paragraphs focus on the interactions among groups of students, holding that these interactions themselves lead to better learning and thus better achievement. 3. Cognitive Developmental Perspective : A fundamental assumption of the cognitive development perspective driven by theories is that reciprocal interaction among children around suitable academic tasks creates growth in the knowledge of concepts and critical skills (Slavin, 2011).