The major source of light-load hydrocarbon emissions is lean air–fuel mixing. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) Diesel engines use highly compressed hot air to ignite the fuel. Air, mainly composed of oxygen and nitrogen, is initially drawn into the combustion chamber. Then, it is compressed, and the fuel is injected directly into this compressed air at about the top of the compression stroke in the combustion chamber. The fuel is burned, and the heat is
Identify the steps in geothermal power plant by choosing the words from the word bank. ( i want to edit the pix, putting a rectangle per number) Chapter Summary Heat is a form of energy that comes from many different sources and is used to produced steam. The steam produced exerts pressure and expands in the cylinders of a steam engine or steam turbine. Then, the expansion of steam turbine is translated into work. Fuel oils like gasoline are vaporized in internal combustion engines and ignited automatically producing heat, which is then translated into work.
The Stirling engine is noted for high efficiency when compared to the steam engines and it has an ability to use almost any heat source. Since the Stirling engine is compatible with various energy sources such as alternative and renewable energy it could be used in the future. Robert Stirling was a Scottish minister who invented the first practical model of a closed cycle engine in 1816 and it was suggested by Fleeming Jenkins in 1884 that all such engines should generally be called as Stirling engines. Like the steam engine, the Stirling engine is traditionally classified as an external combustion engine as all heat transfers takes place inside the chamber. But this idea contradicts as with an internal combustion engine where heat input is by combustion of fuel within itself.
Applications • Gas Transmission • Storage / Withdrawal • Gas Gathering • Gas Boosting / High Pressure. (kelly, 1991) Turbine Engine The gas turbine provides the power to drive the compressor. It is a simple cycle, variable speed, axial flow unit. The engine has two major sections: 1. Gas Producer (GP) 2.
The Diesel cycle is the perfect cycle for CI responding motors. The CI motor, first proposed by Rudolph Diesel in the 1890s, is fundamentally the same as the SI motor talked about in the last segment, varying for the most part in the technique for starting burning. In start motors (otherwise called gas motors), the air– fuel blend is packed to a temperature that is underneath the autoignition temperature of the fuel, and the burning procedure is started by terminating a start plug. In CI motors (otherwise called diesel motors), the air is packed to a temperature that is over the autoignition temperature of the fuel, and ignition begins on contact as the fuel is infused into this hot air. In this way, the start plug is supplanted by a fuel injector in diesel motors .
For controlling the heating temperature of the catalyst presence in a reactor is done by a micro-processor based temperature controller. The gaseous products are produced after the oxidation reaction in a reactor is analysis by an online gas chromatogram (Nucon series 5765) equipped with a porapack q-column, FID detector and a methaniser for measuring of the concentration of CO and CO2. The oxidation of CO at any instant was calculated on the basis of concentration CO in the feed and product stream by the following equations: (XCO) = [(CCO)in - (CCO)out ] / [CCO]in = [(ACO)in - (ACO)out ] / [ACO]in --------------- (2) Where, the concentration of CO is proportional to the area of chromatogram ACO. The overall concentration of CO in the inlet stream is proportional to the area of CO2 chromatogram. 3.
Where, rb : is the burning rate, P: is the test pressure, a: is the experimentally constant known as the temperature coefficient, n: is the burning rate exponent or pressure index. A linear relationship fitted to Equation 1 (illustrated in Figure 2) for a typical propellant formulation, when the burning rate is plotted as a function of pressure on a log-log scale. Figure 2: Burning rate and pressure linear relationship. AP oxidizer composite solid propellant plays a pivotal role in influencing the burning rate due to its particle size, concentration and combinations of particle sizes utilized. The loading of AP by percent mass (αox) influences oxidizer-fuel ratios which
Introduction: Internal combustion engines play a dominant role in transportation and energy production. Even a slight improvement will translate into considerable reductions in pollutant emissions and impact on the environment. The two major types of internal combustion engines are the Otto and the Diesel engine. The former relies on an ignition source to start combustion, the latter works in auto ignition mode. An ignition system is a system for igniting a fuel-air mixture.
2)electric generator: A generator converts mechanical power supplied to its shaft into electrical power in its coils . 3)Hybrid electric vehicle: A parallel hybrid system ,as shown in the figure, is used in parallel with the engine. With this layout, the electric motor not only converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, but it also captures mechanical energy (during regenerative braking) and converts it into stored electrical energy, thus saving energy &increasing fuel efficiency. Introduction For energy conversion between electrical and mechanical forms, electro-mechanical devices are developed. In general, electromechanical energy conversion devices can be divided into three categories: (1)
Submitted by – Prateek Singhal Roll no – 112CH0525 INTRODUCTION THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS CONCLUSIONS RANKINE BOTTOMING CYCLE TURBOCHARGER REFERENCES Fig 1. Schematic of a typical thermoelectric device Fig 2. A typical waste heat energy recovery system ABSTRACT SIX STROKE IC ENGINE CYCLE Fig 6. Typical turbocharger with compressor wheel and turbine Fig 3. Rankine cycle system Technologies to recover exhaust heat from internal combustion engines Fig 4.