Literature Review Of Urban Poverty In Malaysia

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CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Urban poor communities. According to the World Bank (2011) in the section of urban poverty and slum upgrading, communities that are from urban poor are not only those who are deprived from unhealthy environment or who have restricted approach towards health and educational resources, etc. It is actually a dynamic condition whereby people from areas that are susceptible to risk of those stated earlier are also considered as urban poor community. Sinniah, B., Hassan, A.K.R., Sabaridah, etc (2014) stated that to find small businessmen, fairly well educated people, students, government civil servants, self employed and others in urban slum areas are fairly common. This is because those people in urban slum areas…show more content…
R., Kaur, G., Ahmad, N. A., & Khalili, J. M. (2012) paper, poverty in Malaysia is measured both in terms of absolute and relative terms. Absolute poverty is measured in terms of Poverty Line Income (PLI) while relative poverty is measured as proportion of household earning income less than half the mean or median income. According to Siwar and Kassim (1997), the development benefits are distributed unevenly amid the urban center coexisting with higher cost of living due to too much of urban development and huddling of people and economic activities. Thus, a typical PLI which measure rural and urban poverty will underestimate urban poverty. If a different PLI is used, for example 20 to 30 percent higher from the rural sector, a much higher incidence of urban poverty will be recorded. Mok, Gan and Sanyal (2007) stated that PLI has two shortcomings in Malaysia. Firstly it is based on consumption expenditure and secondly, the data on household income is less reliable as it is often under-reported and influenced by the timing of data…show more content…
The ability to multiply in humans which enables it to survive and resulting in serious infections to develop from a single organism. Protozoa are transmitted from a human’s intestine where it lives to another human through the faecal-oral route. For protozoa that reside in blood or tissue of humans are transmitted to another human by an arthropod vector such as mosquito or sand fly bites. (CDC, 2014). Waterborne parasitic infections that are widespread which causes diarrhea are cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis. (Baldursson and Karanis, 2011; Lanata,

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