The next few chapters will dive into causes of corruption, through a disabling viewpoint, and focus on theories that are comparative to police corruption. The theory of police corruption is a well research area in which police stress attributes to many issues. The physical and psychological demands of police stress have been explored throughout this text. The review of this book was to determine the likelihood of a coincidence of police corruption and PTSD (including depression, alcoholism, etc.) created a need for further examination of this subject matter.
The professional or reform era ascended due to the impact of the steps taken to separate police works from the influence of local politicians (Kelling & Moore, 1989). Even though time has carried us to the community era of policing, still corruption is a serious challenge for effective policing. Some police officers do not even understand what an act of corruption is, while others rationalize their act of corruption. In this article police corruption and ways to reduce corruption is critically examined. Furthermore, some common and serious forms of corruption are discussed in this article.
Criminal accountability refers to the responsibility taken for one 's actions when a crime is committed, these crimes may include sexual abuses, theft and murder. Accountability is intended to make sure every crime is taken under prosecution to maintain peace and equality in the country, however, the accountability of one that works within the UN body or with the government remains unclear due to many factors such as immunity, which exempts the criminal from being punished for the crimes they have committed. This is a major problem as it is biased and lacks justice to the violated victims, therefore, it must be taken under extreme deliberation in order to bring peace and exclude discrimination. Iraq has taken extreme care to amend and implement the “Penal Code”, which is a code that aims to categories criminal offences and adopt legal legislations to develop punishments for all the types of possible crimes. The most recent amendment to Iraq’s Penal Code 111 of 1969 was “The Provisional Authority Order No.
In this paper, I will be arguing the concept of what crime is through the situations and the outcomes shown in Crime and Punishment, with the help of true to life crimes. Crime is an integral part of Dostoevsky’s Crime and Punishment. Crime by definition is “an action or omission that constitutes an offense that may be prosecuted by the state and is punishable by law” (Oxford Dictionaries). Studies show that crime is related to the environment that surrounds the person who commits the crime. Crime rates are influenced by factors like economics, social standing, and pollution – due to “[t]he psychological experience of air pollution [as it] increase[s] anxiety, which in turn increase[s] people’s tendency to behave unethically,” (J.G.
Protection of rule of law includes determined legal system that revert back problems and grieves in a fair, non discriminatory and efficient manner. But violations of law happen every day and rule of powerful people, be it bureaucrats, businesspersons etc, is able to overcome justice administration due to corruption. This is a strong reason of political influence which undermines the objective of criminal and constitutional justice system and all judicial processes. The impact of corruption on rule of law and justice administration can be understood by chain of cause and effect relationship. First there is a cause that there is an extensive disregard for the law and the justice administration i.e.
It also aims at ensuring ‘equality – of status and opportunity’ by making sure that the criminal justice administration provides a level playing field for all and sundry, irrespective of their status. Public servants wield the might of the state and are supposed to deliver the promised ‘justice’ and ‘equality’. But what happens when those trusted with the responsibility of protecting and running the system themselves turn its adversaries? What if they exploit the very system that they have been entrusted with the protection of? In the nineteenth century Britain, it was the historian and politician Lord John Dalberg-Acton who said, “Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely.” Corruption, today, has
The tremendous rise of corruption in government departments has made it sine qua non to authorise people with the right to know. The ‘right to know’ is also explicitly recognised in Union of India v. Association for Democratic Reforms & Anr. , where the Supreme Court directed the Election Commission of India to issue necessary orders, in exercise of its power under Article 324 of the Constitution, to call for information on affidavit from each candidate seeking election to the Parliament or a State Legislature as a necessary part of his nomination paper furnishing therein information relating to his
The judgment laid down principles for awarding compensation to victims of police atrocities. It also formulated means to ensure accountability of those responsible for such occurrences. The Court remarked that custodial torture was a naked violation of human dignity which was further aggravated when it was committed in a police station by those who were supposed to protect citizens. The case laid down specific guidelines that must be followed while arresting and interrogating suspects. These guidelines were based on Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 provisions and are now a part of regulations laid down in police manuals and rule books.
the research were tested to investigates the relationship between Self-Deception and variables associated with anti-sociality in the general population for example like mating effort, antisocial thinking, psychopathy and personality and also to seek and provide and evolutionary explanation for how Self-Deception might influence antisocial thinking. The sample comprised 95 of adult participant (33 males, 62 females) recruited via convenient sampling. For procedure, one hundred and forty questionnaires involving the Paulhus Deception Scales (PDS), The NEO-Five Factor Inventory-Revised (NEO-FFI-R), The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), The Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP) and The Mating Effort Scale (MES) were distributed over a three-month period to the entire