Literature Review On Alcohol And Alcohol

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1.1 Alcohol and alcoholism

Alcohol is a natural substance formed by the reaction of fermenting sugar with yeast spores. Alcohol has an effect on central nervous system, reacting in behavioral and mood changes. (Townsend, 2012). Alcoholic beverages have different amounts of alcohol. Beer contains about 5 percent alcohol, Wine 12-15 percent and hard liquor about 45 percent (Anbu, 2014).

The word alcoholism was first coined by Magnus Huss (Subash and Kumar, 2014) and derived from the Arabic word Alkuhi, meaning essence (Sharma, 2013). The effect of different alcoholic beverages are caused by the presence of ethyl alcohol or ethanol, a chemical that result from the fermentation of yeast and grains, malts or fruits. Once swallowed, alcohol is rapidly diffused to all organs of the body that have a high content of water. (Valfre, 2013). It is a central nervous system depressant that causes false self confidence, false sense of belonging and lowering of inhibition (Videbeek, 2006). Despite its social and economic entrenchment, alcohol is also a substance whose use is associated with physical, psychological and social harm (Indira kumar, 2014). From brewing and distillation processes a wide range of alcoholic beverages are produced, which range in strength from low alcohol beers at one percent alcohol by volume to strength spirits at around 60% alcohol by volume, with many beverages in between. Irrespective of the production method or type of beverage, a unit of

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