The social cognition theory is a psychological model of behavior that was emerged from the work of Albert Bandura. This theory mainly focuses on individual environment and how the environment influences an individual behavior (Denler, Wolters, & Benzon, 2014). Mr. Bandura is very famous for the Bobo Doll experiment. This experiment shows how strong environmental influences are on individual behavior. He demonstrated this by showing how easy it is for children to learn aggression.
Unfortunately, Self-actualization is not acquired in all societies, but if present, it reflects positive vibes in one’s self. The cognitive perspective focuses on the mind’s nature and how mental processes influence the behavior. It also explains the study of mental process that incorporates the cognitive perspective. The environmental category groups two perspectives: behavioral and sociocultural. The behavioral theory identifies how the external environment governs and shapes the actions of the individual, which are ultimately not innate.
The primary notions for understanding behavior are rooted in a person’s cognition, affect, and motivation. Theory also suggests that a person’s cognitive abilities (that guides behavior) can enable them to reflect on their thought, feelings, and motivation in response to the influences of the social environment (HBSE lecture). Because social environments do determine behavior, through examples of triadic reciprocal causations theory describe how the imitation of observed behaviors is influenced by the environment, person, and behavior. According to Bandura, each of these factors are causes of one another and must be understood as a system of influencing forces (Pervin, Cerrone & John,
Peer group influences youthful socialization and identity by permitting to develop individual interests and uncertainties while retaining a sense of belonging and coherence within a group of friends (Erikson, 1968; Hartup, 1983; Steinberg & Silverberg, 1987). Peer pressure is frequently operationalized essentially as the degree to which behaviour among friend is correlated (Ide, Parkerson, Haertel, & Walberg, 1981; Robin and Johnson, 1991) rather than the extent to which individuals feel pressured to think in certain ways (Brown, Clasen & Eicher, 1986). Brown and Clasen had developed and validated a measurement for peer pressure. (Brown, Clasen, & Eicher, 1986; Clasen & Brown, 1985). Peer pressure was defined as “when people your own age encourage you to do something or to keep from doing something else, no matter if you personally want to or not” (Brown, 1986).
In the past two centuries, the accelerated rate at which change and developments have been taking place have had a both positive and negative affect on individuals' lives. As individuals try to adjust and get used to these changes, they often ignore their own general well-being, particularly at a university setting, a place in which an adolescent's study has the potential to create anxiety for the youth that will administrate the community in the future. The concept of psychological well-being and its relation with self-esteem has therefore become an increasingly important topic for researchers. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-esteem and satisfaction with life. Life satisfaction in this paper
278). Social interaction includes immediate family, other adults, and peers. Following the topic of this research, the focus would be the interaction of a person with his/her peers and how it affects his/her development in life. Furthermore, Vygotsky postulated that a more knowledgeable person initially guides his/her peer in order to advance the latter’s development. He suggested that there are two factors concerning the development of the person, namely, 1) his/her actual development or what he/she can independently do without help and 2) his/her potential development or what he/she can do with the assistance of others (Berns, 2007).
Behavioural learning theorists place strong emphasis on the effect changes in the environment has on behaviour, they believe that all students can arrive at the same learning when the environment is perfectly presented (Ertmer & Newby, 2013).. Behaviourists believe that the environment is one of the most important factors claiming it has a significant impact on the individual’s behaviour. Cognitive and Behaviourists are similar in the way they both design learning goals with a clear objective in mind. However behaviourists believe in a teacher centred classroom and cognitive believes in the impact the environment can have on learning opting for a more student focused style of teaching (Yilmaz, 2011). The sociocultural learning theory is unique in this perspective as it opposes teacher instruction that interjects and leads learning towards a predetermined outcome. Instead sociocultural believe learning occurs when the learner is actively and socially involved in their environment and therefore the environment needs to be student centred and foster learning with the goal of deep meaning making (Richardson, 2003).
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CONCEPTS Behaviorist learning theory (module 1.2) I chose this topic because it has many applications to and utilities. Behaviorism aims to study the laws of association between a stimulus (S) and response (R) of the animal with respect to this stimulus (info). It will be dominant for a half century. These connectionist theories or associationists consider that the individual receives stimuli and sends responses. They focus on studying concrete and measurable elements, that is to say, the "inputs" (input) that are the stimuli and "outputs" (output), which are the answers.
In recent years, the point has been raised within the cognitive psychology community that human intellectual behaviour must be studied in the context in which it takes place. That is to say, since human beings are immersed in a reality that both affects and is affected by human behaviour, it is essential to consider the ways in which sociocultural factors influence cognition. In particular, the development, understanding, and use of mathematical ideas and techniques grow out of social and cultural situations. Some of the researchers argues that children bring to school their own mathematics which has developed within their own socio-cultural environment. This mathematics, which he calls "ethnomathematics," provides the individual with a wealth of intuitions and informal procedures for dealing with mathematical phenomena.