CHAPTER TWO-LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this study is to explore whether incentive structures influence stakeholder participation in collective action and the extent to which incentives explain success or failure of collective action. This chapter will highlight and discuss literature from various resources including peer-reviewed articles, books, journals and other publications around the issues that are the focus of this study. The chapter starts with a brief discussion on how the concept of collective action is defined and proceeds to discuss some of the key theories that explain this concept. It then reviews some of the key propositions made by various scholars and authors on, factors that influence participation in collective action including the role that incentives play, classification of collective action organizations and incentives. It concludes by looking at some of the arguments advanced relating to how success or failure of collective action organizations can be determined.
A practitioner may utilize developmental theories or practice theories to inform their practice (Lietz, 2018). Because there are many different theoretical principles, they have been distributed into three levels of theories that inform social work practice. The three levels of theories include: practice perspectives, practice theories, and practice models (Langer & Lietz, 2015). The practice perspectives applied across multiple practice settings. Examples include the person-in-environment perspective, problem-centered practice, and strengths perspective (Langer & Lietz, 2015).
3 Capacity Assessment Framework 3.1 Choice of Analytical Framework Development practitioners use a wide variety of methods to explore different tasks and situations to support development programming. In this regard, there exist a number of analytical frameworks which include the Department for International Development (DFID 2003 ) of Promoting Institutional and Organizational Development; the European Commission (EU 2005 ) Institutional Assessment and Capacity Development framework; Institutional Capacity and Methodologies developed by the World Bank for macro-level assessment as well as Towards Effective Capacity Development (UNESCO 2013 ). In other words, although there are different options for capacity assessment frameworks, the United
Whenever a researcher is embarking on a research, he/she will be engaged in developing knowledge. Saunders et al. (2016:124) state that at every stage of the research, the researcher is bound to make several types of assumptions, whether knowingly or unknowingly. These include assumptions about human knowledge (epistemological assumptions), about the realities you encounter in your research (ontological assumptions) and the extent and ways your own values influence your research process (axiological assumptions) (Saunders et al, 2016:124). These assumptions are said to determine how the researcher understands the research questions, the methods to be used and also how findings will be interpreted.
Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this study is to further investigation to find the principle of the project management. Not only in term of project management but also in Information technology field. Design/methodology/approach – There are a lot of source that focuses on the project management principles. Findings – The articles, websites that have been discussed about the principles of the project management in Information Technology. Originality/value – This is the study to conduct on the subject project management.
This chapter presents an extensive review on literature done on acculturation and cross cultural adjustment in different contexts. First, definitions of culture and cross-cultural adjustment are proposed. Theories, models and previous studies on acculturation and cross-cultural adaptation are also reviewed thoroughly. Culture definition Revisited Before commencing a review of the research on cross-cultural adjustment, it is important to discuss the concept of culture and its operationalization as it constitutes the backbone of this ethnographic study. The dynamic and relative nature of culture inevitably has led researchers not only to define it in different ways but also come up with divergent connotations and point of views.
In most applications the data is produced by one or more generating processes, which could either reflect activity in the system or observations collected about entities. When the developing process behaves in a cursory way it results in the creation of outliers. Therefore, an outlier often contains useful
2. Literature Review Introduction In this chapter, will review works that are related to this research study and show evidences to prove that the problem can be solved. Information that can be found in articles, websites, journals and books. Firstly, understanding the perception of culture. Secondly, this work will assess other means that has being used already for educational.
• LITERATURE REVIEW AND CRITICAL ANALYSIS The first and foremost aspect of a research is to extensively analyze and review the works on the current growth trends of control mechanisms over the ages. Here, the aim is to list out and identify several key points of such mechanisms. In order to correctly analyze and design an effective strategy, an appropriate framework becomes a necessity. The research throughout the years was seen to follow a certain trend and it can be categorized into four major sections. The center of this study is to decide "what" impacts the decision of a type of control framework in a gathering of organizations and "how" certain particular variables can change its structure and the path in which it capacities.