Literature Review On Collective Action

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CHAPTER TWO-LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter will present, discuss and analyse some of the major discussions and competing propositions in literature on issues pertaining to the key issues which are the focus of this study. These will be drawn from various sources including peer-reviewed articles, books, journals and other publications. 2.1 What Is Collective Action? In their seminal paper, Wheatland and Chêne (2015) defines collective action as a variety of actions that are undertaken by individuals or groups or an organization that is acting on their behalf to achieve a collective purpose or shared interest of the group or individuals. As an analytical concern, Collective action is a concept that is associated with a myriad of disciplines and contexts which include economic, political, labor, development, agriculture, environment, social, governance and anti-corruption contexts to name but a few. It is a concept that is relevant and adaptable to different contexts and levels. Collective action organizations can either operate in a formal, organized and structured way or can in some contexts evolve spontaneously and not be well-defined structure particularly when pursuing sudden and short-term causes for instance. The structure and extent of formality will vary from context to context and be influenced by a range of factors. In some contexts, collective action can evolve from already existing networks that are serving different purposes. Vanni (2014)
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