Nevertheless, stage-targeted activity promotion interventions are more likely to induce changes in motivation as well as short-term behavior changes. Therefore, more research must be conducted to study if interventions must go beyond health education, or incorporating environmental change strategies to improve opportunities for physical activity. Commentary 2 Adams and White (Adams and White, 2004) offer five reasons why stage-based interventions to promote physical activity may not work. The problem of appropriately classifying individuals into stage as noted by Adams and White (Adams and White, 2004) may be part of a more general problem of the validity of the stages identified in the TTM. Commentary 3 Adams and White appear reluctant to condemn the TTM because a physical activity intervention is very difficult to determine.
Annotated Bibliography The projected study attempts to design a research that would examine the competence of mindfulness therapy. The design would evaluate the progress of the selected individuals who are receiving mindfulness therapy in comparison to those receiving another kind of therapy over a given period of time. The following articles will discuss about the effects of mindfulness therapy to different kinds of patients. Fjorback, L.O., Arendt, M, Ornobol, E., Walach, H., Rehfeld, E., Schroder, A., & Fink, P. (2012).
Acute stress or single exposure to stressor of minutes to hours will be not produce any ill effect as body have protective and adaptive effects managed by hormones and other physiological agents. However re-exposure has proven to be more enigmatic or difficult to reverse. Conrad et al (1999) stated that severe or prolonged exposure to stressors is harmful, brief or moderate stressors actually enhance neural function. Various behavioral studies focusing on the memory functions of the hippocampus have demonstrated that moderate stress enhances memory performance but severe stress causes adaptive plasticity and impairs memory. Prolonged stress produces interaction between local neurotransmitters and hormones leading to structural and functional damage causing suppression of neurogenesis.
“Attribution Theory (B. Weiner),” by John Cherry, discusses the general idea about how something causes something else to happen and how that affects human behaviors. You may not think much, but simple things such as skipping class or working extra hours will show its effects in the future and will alter the way you perceive that, good and bad intentions. Cherry states, “Attribution has three stages: when the behavior is observed, when the behavior is determined, and whether the behavior causes internal or external ambition” (Cherry, J.). What this quote means is that it is important to mention behavior because it determines one’s self-esteem too. When you are confident in doing something you tend to do it more often, however, when you are unconfident in doing doing something you try to avoid doing it.
He addresses the theories that low self-esteem can lead someone to be more vulnerable to stress and anxiety; that rejections and failures can be hurtful to one’s self-esteem; and that it can take longer to recover from these psychological injuries than physical injuries. Instead of taking your emotions out on something or someone when you receive rejection, one should focus on reviving their self-esteem (Bradberry & Greave, 2009). For someone to improve their self-esteem and avoid emotional pain, having a strong sense of self-awareness and self-management would be greatly
Results though have not been consistent due to differing cultures, religiosity scales used and constructs used (Jorm & Christensen, 2004). High levels in Agreeableness and Conscientiousness although positive can be detrimental to one’s mental health. Agreeableness can cause an increase of social consensus (Cote & Moskowitz, 1998) while conscientiousness can encourage adherence to established protocols (John & Srivastava, 1999) and in sum, would reflect tendencies to feel and act like everyone else and to assimilate cultural norms wholly (Bleidorn, Gebauer, Gosling, Lamb & Potter, 2014). According to Freud (as cited in Lewis, 1994),
The positive reinforcement are favourable and events or acceptable outcomes that are presented after the behaviour, where there is a situation of positive reinforcement the behaviour will be strengthen by praises or a direct reward to the person. On the other hand the negative reinforcement is the removal of an unfavourable event or unacceptable outcomes after a behaviour has been displayed and therefore no reward would be granted as the behaviour is considered unpleasant, however in both of these cases of reinforcement the behaviour increases (Cherry, Operant Conditioning: About Education, 2015). Another concept skinner spoke about is the punishment that is presented in an adverse behaviour that follows the event, he also broke this down into two types pf punishment which are the positive and negative punishment (Cherry, Operant Conditioning: About Education, 2015). The positive punishment are referred to punishment by application, which is the presentation of an unacceptable outcome that weakens the response that follows it, while the negative punishment are punishment by removal which is when a favourable outcome is removed after a behaviour occurs, in this case both punishment behaviour are decreased (Cherry, Operant Conditioning: About Education, 2015). He also invented the
As supported in the study of Boe and Ponder (1981), blood donors exposed to positive norms are more likely to have intrinsic motivation and also scored high on altruism scales. Individuals are able to find themselves become altruistic if they see other people being altruistic too (Spector & Klein, 2006). However, it is easily argued that if one were to be altruistic based on other people’s action, then that will be considered egoistic because we are simply doing what others are doing. But considering the fact that behaviors can be modified based on modeling, as mentioned above, therefore it is not egoistic. For example, Mary sees Jack helping others altruistically, Mary’s behavior will slowly become altruistic because she watched and learned from Jack.
However, it is possible that moderate level of anxiety may have positive effects such as increased concentration and logical thinking. It further motivates individuals to take actions and cope in order to reduce the feeling of distress and anxiety. Thus, moderate level of anxiety may be good in doing tasks efficiently. In conclusion, although there are many theories that could explain the generation of emotion, SPAARS model provides a more holistic explanation of generation, transition of emotions as well as emotion coupling.
Regardless of one’s circumstance, can happiness occur, if one strives to be happy? Yes, I believe, a big part of our happiness depends on our mindset and choices. Each one of us is inimitable and our happiness depends on several different factors. According to Dianne Hales, the author of Invitation to Health, there are many factors that our happiness depends on, such as positive traits, wisdom, courage, and strong family relationships (Hales, 2014). I believe, unless there is a chemical imbalance, our genes, and environmental circumstances have much to do with our happiness, yet, these things tend to have less of an impact than one may think.