Seismic forces are always more at the base of the building. Simply we can say the seismic force at base of the building is called the base shear. In a multi-storey building all vibration modes of the building contribute to the base shear. Base shear is an estimate of the highest possible lateral force that will occur due to seismic ground motion at the base of a
Abstract Irregularity is inevitable in the design of multistory buildings. This paper presents the study of vertical irregular buildings which have setback at their different elevation points. All the possible shapes of vertical geometric irregular buildings are considered for the study. Parameters that are used for the assessment are internal forces that induce in the critical members of the building. With the help of this study, decisions can be make about providing setback in a building at different elevation points.
However seismic vulnerability of flat slab is evitable fact. This system responds more to earthquake loading in comparison to conventional structure. But by what amount and whether it is within acceptable limits and if not what measures can we take to reduce the seismic response of flat slab structure. So aims to study seismic response of flat slab structure with different heights as well as variation in
of readings taken)………… (3) Experiment 3 In this experiment, Stiffness and Specific stiffness was compared to Diameter for both Hollow and Solid Cylinders. Specific stiffness = Stiffness/ Mass ……… (4) Experiment 4 This experiment was carried out to find out whether Stiffness is inversely proportional to Length3. Beams 3 and 4 were used for this experiment. Experiment 5 Load was applied to different parts of the Beam, and then the Deflections were noted. The setup in Figure 2 was used.
On September 29th 2009, two particularly strong earthquakes caused a massive tsunami to hit the islands of Samoa, American Samoa, and Tonga . An earthquake is the result of movement from tectonic plates on earth which causes the ground to shake . The earth's outer most layer, the lithosphere, is made up of the crust and uppermost mantle . The crust is made of rocks, makes up less than 1% of the earth and is the hard-outer layer of earth . The mantle is the largest layer of the earth and consists of dense, heated rock .
How and Why Do Earthquakes Happen? World Geography Janet de Guzman Puriyod Laohabutr Grade 9G March 13, 2018 HOW AND WHY DO EARTHQUAKES HAPPEN? Abstract Introduction What are Earthquakes? An Earthquakes takes place when two blocks or pieces of the Earth’s crust suddenly slip pass one another or, the piece of land collided into each other. The surface where they slip or collide is called a “fault place”.
Heat circulating in the Earth’s mantle is believed to drive the movement of tectonic plates. Although the plates are moving at approximately one inch per year, this accounts for the rearrangement of Earth’s continents over vast spans of geologic time. At their boundaries, tectonic plates collide, spread apart, or move in parallel but opposite directions to each other. As a result of these movements, most earthquakes occur at tectonic plate boundaries. Seismic activity is a continuous phenomenon.
Furthermore, the strains, which are a result of plate convergence, are known to be the cause of at least three different types of earthquakes. In fact, nine out of the ten major earthquakes to occur in the last 100 years were the results of subduction zone events. Just to name a few of these earthquakes, the 1960 Great Chilean Earthquake, the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake were all the results of plate
Seismic performance evaluation of setback buildings using nonlinear static and dynamic methods Shibajee Sutar1, Lipika Halder2* Graduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala, India, 799046 firstname.lastname@example.org 2*Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala, India, 799046 email@example.com Abstract: Three ten-storey reinforced concrete framed buildings comprising of one regular in elevation and two setbacks at different level are considered in this study to address the seismic response of vertically irregular buildings. Both inelastic static and dynamic analysis are performed considering three different load patterns and an ensemble of 4
3.1 INTRODUCTION The design of structures should satisfy these basic requirements stability, strength, and serviceability. The Structure is most susceptible to failure during construction. There is an assumption that in reality simultaneously applying load are not valid in a real construction sequence because a building is constructed floor by floor and dead load acts sequentially. To obtain the stability of incomplete structure sequential application of load must have considered. Hence, Construction sequence analysis is best suitable.