Literature Review On Employee Burnout

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2.0 Literature Review 2.1 Personal Traits Many studies which have been conducted on the work environment of call centers have indicated that the stressful environment is linked to employee burnout (Holman, 2003; Wallace et al. 2000). Burnout can be considered as an external stressor which is developed when someone is exposed to a demanding environment over a long period of time and normally leads emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of accomplishment (Maslach and Jackson, 1981). Table 2.1 – Stages of Burnout and Relevant traits. Concept Effects Traits Emotional exhaustion Stress resulted from interaction between agents and clients Emotional intelligence Depersonalization Withdrawal of commitment towards one’s work Self-directed learning Lack of accomplishment Negative self-evaluation Self-efficacy Source: Maslach (1981) Emotional Intelligence Emotional intelligence (EI) is one of the key internal qualities of all high performing call center agents as stated by Bardzil and Slaski (2003). It was introducted by Salovey and Mayer (1990) and Goleman (1995) was among the first to draw more attention to emotional intelligence and he defined it as “being able to motivate oneself and persist in the face of frustrations; to control impulse and delay gratifications; to regulate one’s mood and keep distress from swamping the ability to think; to empathize and to hope” (p. 34). He further stated that the main difference between a high performer and a low

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