Literature Review On Empowerment

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LITERATURE REVIEW Empowerment Handing over decision making powers to employees has been defined as empowerment (Ford, Fottler, Russ, & Millam, 1995). Empowerment has value for every walk of life but it is of immense importance for the service industry like banking, health etc. Ford et al (1995) has termed directed autonomy to employees for making independent decisions which may influence the outcomes for the organization, as empowerment for banking industry. Alsop and Heinsohn (2005) has defined empowerment as a person’s capacity to make effective choices; that is, as the capacity to transform choices into desired actions and outcomes. They have that the degree of empowerment subjected to personal agency and opportunity structure. Saleem and Rasheed (2014) have identified two main types of empowerment i.e structural (entrusting of powers to subordinates) and psychological (self vis-à-vis role in organization) empowerment. “Psychological empowerment is a cognitive state and it refers to an employee’s experience of empowerment at workplace”. (Maryam, Ahsan, & Raazia, 2014). The word ' ' empowerment ' ', is derived from various approaches and fields of study such as psychology, economy, education, and social and organizational studies (Nanette & Cheryl E., 1999). Different users interpret empowerment as per their domain of activities. Such as, empowerment of people, empowerment of women, empowerment of employees in the organizational context etc.

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