The world consists of 36.7 million people living with HIV/AIDS. Out of 36.7 million people, there are 1.8 million people who are children less than 15 years old, who get infected through their mothers who are HIV positive during pregnancy and through breastfeeding. A large amount of these children live in the sub-Saharan African region. As HIV is not a virus that shows immediate symptoms, only 60% of the people who have HIV know they are having the disease and what stage they are on whereas 40% which is more than 14 million people don 't even have access to HIV tests. Very few people are receiving any treatment for HIV/AIDS.
According to guidelines proposed by the Maastricht conference, only IgG detection is considered and the favored method is ELISA. Currently, different formats of serological tests are available, including simple ELISAs that use whole lysates or recombinantly produced H. pylori proteins as antigens. (13) Prevalence of H. pylori in Children : Mainly the H. pylori infection occurs during childhood, especially under the age of 5 years, and H. pylori prevalence in the adulthood depends on infection in the childhood. It is important to determine the status of current H. pylori infection in children including prevalence, incidence, and origin of infection because such evidence can be used to expect the incidences of H. pylori-related diseases in the future and can also be incorporated into a prevention strategy for gastric cancer
I focused on how different factors in society, biology and the environment shape communities and individuals over time. As I dove deeper in medical anthropology, I noticed that there was a common reoccurring pattern of combining both anthropology and epidemiology to describe health problems within societal populations. I became fascinated with epidemiology because of the fact that disease can be affected by factors both on a macro and micro scale. In my field of applied anthropology, the reasons behind causal factors of disease are heavily studied to understand the population in a holistic fashion. The methodology and data collection techniques I learned as an anthropologist would give me a unique approach as an epidemiologist by helping me brainstorm ways to combat a disease by looking at a cultures ethnomedical system as well as historical and contemporary data in order to present a more clear and complete picture as to the cause of the distribution pattern.
Research in Counseling The purpose of this paper is to know the importance of research in the field of counseling. Address the importance relationship between research and counseling. This paper will also discuss the importance roles and responsibilities of research in the field of counseling. It is important to be aware of the ethical and legal consideration when working with clients. Research is vital in the field of counseling because it provides with proper data on the impact and effectiveness of counseling.
CHAPTER TWO 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction This section of the report will be used to discuss the findings of previous studies in the area of TB case detection especially among healthcare providers. For purposes of convenience, the section will be discussed under sub-thematic areas as Knowledge regarding TB case detection, Health worker practices regarding TB case detection, challenges to TB case detection, and factors influencing low TB case detection. 2.2 Healthcare providers Knowledge regarding TB case detection Health worker knowledge has been identified to have a direct link with delays to TB case detection. Knowledge includes the ability to recognize symptoms, identify causes and transmission routes, and familiarity with the
Epidemiology also interests me since it is truly a combination of many different areas as it draws on statistics, clinical medicine, microbiology and many other fields. The internship with the summer institute with the UT School of Public Health would give me hands on experience in public health practice, specifically with opportunities in infectious diseases and epidemiology. I feel that my experiences and classes I have had throughout my time as a public health major will allow me to put my knowledge to use in the real world. I have listed the “Zika and Neglected Tropical Diseases” as my the preference for my first project, as it aligns exactly with my career goals and interests. Zika is a perfect example of how infectious diseases and agents can quickly spread throughout the world due to the ease of travel, and therefore poses a major public health threat.
For instance, three randomized trials were done in sub-Saharan Africa to evaluate the protective effect of MC against HIV. All three trials revealed that MC resulted in lower incidence of HIV infection. The first trial was conducted in 2005 in South Africa, where 3000 men between 18 and 24 were included in the study resulting with 60% less HIV infection (Auvert et al., 2005). The second controlled trial in Kisumu, Kenya, also helped to discover that MC reduces the risk of HIV for 60% (Bailey et al., 2007). In turn, 51% reduction of HIV infection risk was achieved after the third controlled trial in Uganda’s Rakai District (Ronald H Gray,
Epidemiology is the study of occurrence, causes and influence of a disease, in a population which provide information based on health policies as well as medicine through examining the factors of a disease (Bryan et al., 1971). Epidemiology studies has been used to study several disease such as AIDS, Food poisoning, Influenza and Anthrax. Epidemiology plays a major role in the health of community. First of all, it determines the cause of a particular disease in terms of the mode of transmission and risk factors. It also examines current and newly developed therapeutic method (Gevin, 2003).
(2015). HIV prevalence among FSW[Graph]. Retrieved from http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/country/documents/MMR_narrative_report_2015.pdf United Nation Regional Information Centre for Western Europe. (2014). Maternal mortality remains a threat to Myanmar mums.
Like the clinical findings and pathology, the epidemiology of a disease is an integral part of its basic description. The subject has its special techniques of data collection and interpretation, and its necessary jargon for technical terms. This short book aims to provide an ABC of the epidemiological approach, its terminology, and its methods. Our only assumption will be that readers already believe