-The content of stereotype stands for characteristics that people have describe a group. Studies of stereotype content express how people see others, instead of the reasons included in stereotyping. Early theories of content of stereotype proposed by social psychologists as Gordon Allport supposed that outgroups stereotypes reflected parallel aversion. Katz and Braly discussed in their study that ethnic stereotypes were negative. -Early studies proposed that rigid, repressed and authoritarian people only were used stereotypes.
Therefore, comparing to delayed anxiety group, resilient group showed more SCI linked coping such as acceptance, with fewer functional impairment in problem solving, with better quality of life in social aspects and showed less appraisal of threat. Compared to anxiety recovery group, resilient group showed fewer appraisal of threat, more SCI linked coping such as acceptance and better quality of life in social aspects. However, anxiety recovery group and the delayed anxiety group did not have much differences on the covariates. Both showed high percentages of trajectories of low stable symptoms (resilience), a temporary dysfunction that got better by time (recovery), a low dysfunction that elevated over time (delayed). However, according to the best-fitting model, the unconditional and conditional model were only slightly different.
Also, the level of credibility directly influences the effectiveness of verbal persuasion; where there is more credibility; there will be a greater influence. In the example above, a pep talk by a manager who has an established, respectable position would have a stronger influence than that of a newly hired manager. Although verbal persuasion is also likely to be a weaker source of self-efficacy beliefs than performance outcomes, it is widely used because of its ease and ready availability (Redmond, 2010). In fact, it is usually easier to weaken self efficacy beliefs through negative appraisals than to strengthen such beliefs through positive
The halo effect theory describes the way people look at others. It is a cognitive bias in which our overall impression of someone in one area influences our opinion of that person’s character. The research into the halo effect shows that a person’s positive physical attractiveness and qualities might be a good person. The better he/she looks and behaves, the better a person we judge him/her to be. For example, people tend to view attractive individuals as more knowledgeable and intelligent.
It states that the good consequences for the individual has greater ability as compared with the consequences placed upon others. In addition, actions could be considered as ethical for the individual whoever is taking the action which is benefited, while any advantage or disadvantage to the well-being of others is a secondary effect and not as important as the consequences for the individual. The similarity between act utilitarianism and ethical egoism are both contained large number of sub-theories within each branch which are the value placed between the individual and others. Both ethical egoism and act utilitarianism are allowing an individual to put himself or herself first in determining the right action to take in a particular situation whether the particular action is right or wrong. This is different from pure selflessness which states that only working for the benefit of others is morally valuable.
Notwithstanding, based on the findings of study of Quang Phung, and Bryant (2013), participants instructed to either thought suppression or emotional inhibition retrieved fewer categoric autobiographical memories in contrast to controls. That is to say, their finding is inconsistent with the affect
The benefits of this phenomenon are not limited to the neurological system, however. Academics have also established a positive relationship between the zone, flow and peak experiences and happiness. While happiness is particularly difficult to measure, as it depends largely on peoples preferences and perceptions, people who have experienced any of the three phenomena (or all of them) show higher self-esteem, are more satisfied with their lives and consider them purposeful and
Higher scores for rule of law and political stability and absence of violence or terrorism would mean that there are less risks involved in terms of the country's political and economic stability. A higher control of corruption score means that corruption in a particular country is lower, and is capable of providing public goods and services with less wastage of
A longitudinal study looking at minority and majority members in Belgium, Germany, and England found that increased contact quantity will decrease prejudice towards outgroup members (Binder et al., 2009). This study also looked at contact quality and found that greater contact quality will reduce prejudice. Results were stronger for contact quality than contact quantity indicating that while contact frequency does decrease prejudice, positive contact reduces prejudice to a higher extent. Another study looking at Black South Africans in post-apartheid societies found the same results; quality of interracial contact is more important at reducing discrimination than quantity (Dixon et al., 2010). From these results we can assume that both contact quality and frequency will reduce negative attitudes towards outgroup
While being happy is an amazing state, experiencing other emotions are just as important. The unpleasant states of sadness, fear, anger, etc. can greatly contribute to one’s cognitive process. Negative feelings help someone rely less on jumping to conclusions and judging, and rather encourage acceptance and observation. Happy people are more gullible than those who have negative moods, and tend to be easy going and accept things rather than ask questions, which in situations may not be the best response or have the best results and consequences.