as an appreciation of the investment (Noah and Steve, 2012). Carpeter et al. (2009) identified a number of factors that would influence employees’ work attitude, including personality, perceived organisational fairness, work environment, job relations, job characteristics, psychological contracts, and stress. A study by Ahmad et al. (2010) found that work attitude of employees has a positive impact on job satisfaction, which would lead to improved moral and performance in the workplace.
A person will only perform at a certain level if they believe that the performance will lead to a given expressed outcome. Instrumentality can be described as the thought that if an individual performs well, then a valued outcome will come to that individual. This well explained by the instrumentality theory Reward has therefore been seen to be a vital instrument in employee performance. This is because a well rewarded employee feels valued by the company. The employee is thus encouraged to work harder and better if they are aware that their well-being is taken seriously by their employers, and that their career and self-development are also being taken care of by their company thus increasing employee performance, Condly et al,(
Job satisfaction is defined as the amalgamation of emotional, physical and environmental situations due to which a person honestly comments that he/she is satisfied with their respective jobs (Hoppock, 1935). Vroom in his definition on job satisfaction focuses on the role of the employee in the workplace. According to Vroom (1964), he defined job satisfaction as positive feedbacks from the individuals towards their jobs which they are doing in present, as Vroom’s main focus is on the role of employees in the organizations. Job satisfaction basically exemplifies a mixture of optimistic or pessimistic feelings that the employees have towards their respective jobs. When an employee is working in an organization, he/she wants to satisfy their needs, wants and other positive expectations that they have with their jobs as well as with the organization.
They may feel like their talents are not valued and they might become discouraged and quit. The necessary information regarding the job description should be provide as inadequate information about skill requirements that are needed to fill a job may result in the hiring of either under skilled or overqualified workers. The HR department specifies job requirements and hires them and workers should be tested for the appropriate qualifications. A suitable job requirement and job analysis would aid to overcome this problem. Another element that leads to higher employee turnover is poor working conditions.
Individuals with high spirit at work are well adjusted and exhibit a sense of inner harmony, positive energy, conscientiousness, and a spiritual inclination (Kinjerski, 2004). Spirit at work is also related to an increased commitment in the workplace (Krishnakumar & Neck, 2002; Milliman, Ferguson, Trick¬ett, & Condemi, 1999). More spe¬cifically, employee spirit at work has been found to be positively related to employee work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, organizational com-mitment, work self-esteem, and the lack of intention to quit (Milliman, Czaplewski, & Ferguson, 2003). Be¬cause these attitudes have been asso¬ciated with a reduction in absentee¬ism and turnover and an increase in job performance, it follows that spir¬it at work should also lead to similar
This leads to high levels of job satisfaction from implementing OCB giving them more responsibility and freedom and present constantly new opportunities for them. It is important to note that benefits of the OCB are mutual to company and its workers as well as third parties such as customers, suppliers etc. OCB works as an incentive for employees as they know that they will be not only well rewarded for their hard-work done which consequently encourages positive behaviour and turn professional success for the individual. It is a win-win situation. A meta-analysis by Borman revealed that conscientiousness was the most powerful trait
Cognitive Job Satisfaction. Affective Job Satisfaction: Affective job satisfaction deals with feelings or emotions that people attach with their Job. Positive Affects (PA) signifies enthusiastic, alert and active behavior while Negative Affects (NA) signifies unpleasant engagement that may result in anger, contempt, absenteeism etc. Cognitive Job Satisfaction: Cognition is beliefs or attitude towards an aspect or object. With respect to Job it means attitude towards working hours, benefits attached or level of autonomy at place of work etc.
Productivity is associated with employee’s morale. When employees are content with their work and at their workplace, they are more motivated and driven to work. This will lead to an increase in productivity. On the other hand, poor morale cause employee to be demotivated and disengaged. E. Employee Satisfaction Employee satisfaction is an extent to which employees are happy and contented with their jobs and work environment, which can affect job performance.
Ensuring job satisfaction is one of the main ways to increase productivity. According to Edwards (2015), “When an employee is happy, that employee is essentially saying they care more about what they're doing. This leads to increased dedication and attention to detail--which obviously enhances productivity and output” (P.9). Thirdly, recognition can be a very useful tool to increase productivity. Recognition of employee efforts can equate to greater productivity, even among those who aren't as productive.
Productive attitude can be maintained through many possible aspects, out of which one is environment. According to Sehgal (2012), it’s a duty of management to create an environment which is full of motivation and attraction and where people should enjoy working and have some goals which they want to achieve happily. There are basically three main objectives of this study, one is to focus on the health of employees and to identify either it’s because of the work environment or not. Second is that either working environment effects the growth in work related areas or not. Final objective is to see either the design of the office is creating a positive or a negative impact on the employees.