Literature Review On Motivation In The Workplace

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In order to discuss and understand the results presented from the research conducted we must first understand the literature on motivation in the workplace available. Therefore, this literature review will provide information from previous researchers about the topic. According to the MARS model, motivation is a major factor in determining individual behaviour and results. What is motivation? Motivation can be described as internal forces that impact the direction, intensity, and endurance of a person’s voluntary choice of behaviour. It consists of direction, intensity and persistence. There are two types of theories that seek to explain motivation, these are content theories and process theories. Content theories also known as need theories…show more content…
Herzberg stated that the intrinsic factors were motivators because they encourage workers to work harder and increase performance. Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge and competence are examples of intrinsic motivators (Johns & Saks, 2001). Extrinsic or hygiene factors improve job satisfaction (Banerjee, 1984).Herzberg stated that extrinsic factors include supervision, company policy and administration, pay, interpersonal relations and working conditions. Johns and Saks (2001) indicated that fringe benefits are also a hygiene factor. Maslow stated that insurance and pension plans are also examples (Johns & Saks, 2001).He also stated that some motivators have both intrinsic and extrinsic qualities. Maslow attempted to show that the level of motivation was based on satisfying needs. Therefore, he placed people’s needs into five categories. These include physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs, all in the order in which they are ranked in his hierarchy, lowest to highest. Therefore in order to satisfy safety needs, one must satisfy their physiological needs first. He stated that Individuals who are in the lower level need categories expect extrinsic motivation whereas people in the higher level need categories expect more intrinsic motivation (Johns & Saks,…show more content…
Instrumentality is the belief that the level of performance of an individual will result in good or bad outcomes. Therefore, it’s the hope that a workers first level outcome will lead to a specific second-level outcome. Lastly, valence is the belief that the outcome would be of personal value to the individual. Additionally, expectancy theory states that a person’s motivation can be measured by assigning weights to each of these beliefs and then multiplying them. Thus, if a workers belief is low then their level of motivation is low and vice versa (André,

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