Literature Review On Motivation

837 Words4 Pages
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Researches prove that vocational high school students have difficulties on the process of learning English. Learners need to develop and use various learning strategies in order to both deal with such difficulties and make learning efficient. It is not easy to listing some specific factors which influence motivation and the effects of motivation on the process of learning English. Also it is not very clear how motivation affects the choice and use of learning strategies. Previous researches on motivation focused on two main motivational orientations of language learners. Recent studies show new perspectives about motivation. In this literature review two different models of motivation will be discussed.…show more content…
internal state or condition that activates behavior and gives it direction; desire or want that energizes and directs goal-oriented behavior; influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of behavior. Moreover; motivation, according to Harmer (2007), is “some kind of internal drive which pushes someone to do things in order to achieve something”. While learning a foreign language one’s being self-motivated and autonomous is really an important factor. However, there are also other specific factors that work with motivation. Regarding to these specific factors, while Ellis (1994) stating that motivation has an influence on what a learner learns, how the learner behaves and how is the learner’s achievement, Wlodwoski explained motivation as “the processes that can (a) arouse and instigate behavior, (b) give direction or purpose to behavior, (c) continue to allow behavior to persist,…show more content…
But these unique acts are always carried out within a cultural and social milieu and cannot be completely separated from that context. Several decades ago, Abraham Maslow (1970) viewed motivation as a construct in which ultimate attainment of goals was possible only by passing through a hierarchy of needs, three of which were solidly grounded in community, belonging, and social status. Maslow saw motivation as dependent on the satisfaction first of fundamental physical necessities (air, water, food), then of community, security, identity, and self-esteem, the fulfilment of which finally leads to self-actualization. The “needs” concept of motivation in some ways belongs to all three schools of thought: the fulfilment of needs is rewarding, requires choices, and in many cases must be interpreted in a social context. Models of motivation In this literature review two models of motivation are discussed. The first model is Gardner’s model and the second one is Dörnyei’s model of motivation. Gardener’s Model Gardner defines motivation with four aspects: 1. a goal 2. effortful behavior to reach the goal 3. a desire to attain the goal 4. positive attitudes toward the goal (Gardner, 1985, p.
Open Document