To maintain abovementioned function drilling mud must be of sufficient density or mudweight. The density of the mud is measured and reported in such field units: pounds per gallon (PPG). Then, it can be converted into pound per cubic feet (lb/ft3), grams per millilitre (b/ml), grams per cubic centimetre (g/cm3), or specific gravity (S.G.). The density of the mud can be altered by
Sometimes mixed regolith having small and large particles when come in contact with water acts like flowing concrete. When this type of soil is present at steep slopes the large volume of sliding and moving soil comes rapidly down may termed as mud flow, earth flow, and debris flow or debris avalanche too. When soil contains more fine particles then it is prone to mud flow under moderate rainfall and slump under heavy rainfall Observations: 1) Total mass of soil = 2000gm. 2) Mass of soil retained on 4.75mm IS sieve = 305gm. 3) Mass of soil passing 4.75 mm IS sieve = 1552gm.
During compaction, only air voids are reduced while water content remains the same. On the other hand, consolidation of soils is the reduction of water voids between soil particles. This is visualized in the diagram shown below, in which the soil in experiencing compaction can have both air and water voids but only air void is reduced while the soil experiencing consolidation only contain water voids and has it reduced. Consolidation usually occurs to fine-grain soils such as clayey and silty soils and is a time-dependent process that can occur over long periods due to low permeability rates. However, coarse and medium-grain soils can also experience consolidation though in a much shorter period of time as a result of its higher permeability rates.
There are several types of reinforced gravity walls such as: i) Concrete cantilever gravity wall: A wall that is connected to its foundation is called a cantilever wall. It is important to design this structure very carefully since it with holds a lot of soil. This type of wall lies on a slab foundation, which is in turn, loaded by the weight of the soil behind it along with the surcharge to prevent the wall from overturning and sliding. ii) Counter-fort/Buttressed retaining wall: A counter-fort wall is a type of cantilever wall strengthened with counter-forts formed of the same the same block of stone as the back of the wall and base slabs. The counter-forts reduce bending and shearing stresses and are considered tension stiffeners.
Soil – Lime Reactions The addition of lime to a soil initiates a two stage reaction. Short-term reactions show their effect right after the addition of lime, while long term reactions are accompanied by a period of time. The short-term effect of the addition of lime to a clay soil is to cause flocculation and agglomeration of the clay particles, as explained in Section 3.1 on fly ash stabilization, for cation exchange takes place between the metallic ions of the clay particles and the
Lineament density of an area can ultimately expose the groundwater potential, since the presence of lineaments usually signifies a permeable zone. Areas with high lineament density are good for groundwater potential zones. 4.5 Slope Slope determines the rate of infiltration and runoff of surface water, the flat surface areas can hold and drain the water inside of the ground, which can increase the ground water recharge whereas the steep slopes increase the runoff and decrease the infiltration of surface water into ground. The slope of the study area has been calculated in degrees based on the DEM model. 4.6
CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 3.1 General The raw materials required for paver block manufacturing are fly-ash (Fa), Quarry dust (Qd), Stone aggregates, Cement (OPC) and Water. 3.2 Material Used In this study, ordinary Portland cement ASTM type I and water of drinking quality were used. Fly ash used in this paper, produced from ignite coal, was obtained from the Thermal Power plant in Paricha, Jhansi (India) Interestingly, it has the total sum of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 at ≈69% with quite a high CaO content (≈20%). Thus, the fly ash used in this study will be defined as high-calcium fly ash. Finely ground limestone powder was supplied from Ashutosh Chemicals ,Talik Bazar Chowk Near Old Delhi Railway Station.
Lab Report #3: Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12,400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3)) Soil compaction demonstrates how the soil will behave considering factors such as physical and chemical properties, moisture content, method of compaction, amount of compactive effort, and thickness of layer or “lift” being compacted when a compactive effort was added to it. This results to a compaction curve which is a plot of dry density versus moisture content. This was obtained by compacting moist soil with prescribed added amount of water in a compaction mold and getting the moisture content of a subspecimen retrieved from the center of the compacted mixture. The peak of the curve is a point showing the optimum moisture content and the maximum dry density of the soil. The results were acceptable since the R2 value of the trend line of the compaction curve is nearly 1.
The soils that are highly susceptible to erosion and containing high percentage of sodium ions are called “Dispersive soil.” Dispersivity is the property of soil by virtue of which soil separates into their component particles when wet. Soil dispersivity is due to the presence of exchangeable sodium present in the structure. Dispersive soils are structurally unstable soils. In appearance, dispersive clays are like normal clays that are stable and somewhat resistance to erosion, but in reality they are highly erosive and subjected to damage and failure. These soils are erodible in nature and have tendency to segregate in presence of water and erode under small seepage velocity leading to problems of stability failure of earth and earth retaining
The substances it carried are deposited in another part or completely removed from the material through percolation when there is evaporation of soil moisture at the surface influencing an upward movement of water (Nyman et al., 1993).Precipitation therefore brings about redistribution of substances in soil body which can either be in soluble form or in suspension (Troeh and Thompson (2005). Temperature This is another agent of climate which influences the process of soil formation by influencing the rate of biological and chemical reactions occurring in the soil. According to Bronick and Lal (2005), High temperature increases the rate of chemical weathering, thereby resulting to high rate of soil formation and it also favours the activities of microorganisms in the soil. Soil formation through chemical weathering in areas of low temperature is minimal because, low temperature slows down the process of decomposition (Six et al., 2000). Biological