Literature Review On Racial Microaggressions

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Literature Review
The literature review of this study includes research related to three key questions: (a) What are racial microaggressions? (b) What are the challenges that Black students at predominantly white colleges and universities encounter in the classroom? (c) What does Black resistance look like at predominantly white colleges and universities?

Racial Microaggressions
How are racial microaggressions defined?
The concept of racial microaggressions1 was first coined in 1970 by psychologist Chester Pierce who defined it as the “subtle, stunning, often automatic, and non-verbal exchange which are ‘put downs’ of blacks by offenders” (Pierce, Carew, Pierce-Gonzalez, and Willis 1978: 66). In recent studies, racial microaggressions have been used as a tool for critical race research (see Huber and Solórzano 2015a) by psychologists (Sue et al. 2007, 2008a, 2008b, 2009), educationalist (Hubain et al. 2016; Huber and Solórzano 2015a, 2015b; Solórzano, Ceja, and Yosso 2000; Yosso, Smith, Ceja, and Solórzano 2009), and social workers (Ross-Sheriff 2012), to name a few.
Nearly 40 years after Pierce (1970), Sue et al. defined racial microaggressions as “brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, and environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults to the target person or group” (Sue et al. 2007: 273; Sue et al. 2009). More recently, Huber and Solórzano defined racial
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