They should discover they can make a difference now. Above all, they should leave school knowing what they are good at. (Wright S. 2013) Authentic tasks are needed to both develop and assess many of the most significant outcomes identified in the current sets of academic Standards as well as trans-disciplinary 21st Century Skills and Research on effective learning from cognitive psychology and neuroscience underscores the importance of providing students with multiple opportunities to apply their learning to relevant, real-world situations. (McTighe 2015) Teacher expectancies can have an impact on students' academic achievement. These expectancies can be based on diverse student characteristics, only one of which is past academic performance.
For example, a classification approach is used (Minaei Bidgoli et al., 2003) to classify students to predict their final year performance based on different parameters derived from the data in an educational web-based system. A clustering algorithm is used (Tsai, Tseng, & Lin, 2009) to categorize students with similar behavioral characteristics. Association rule mining techniques have frequently been used to solve educational problems and carry out critical analysis in an academic environment for improving the learning process of student. These efforts are carried out in order to raise the standards and administration of educational processes by investigating the learning systems, learning resources arrangements, and students’ results, curriculum restructuring, and institutional websites (Damasevicius, 2009; Talavera, & Gaudioso, 2004; Erdogan, & Timor, 2005). A very comprehensive review of data mining in education from 1995 to 2005 is published in 2007 by Romero and Ventura.
Dunn & Mulvenon (2009, p. 3) describe it as an assessment designed to “determine a students’ academic development after a set unit of material” while Moss (2012, p. 235) defines it as determining “the student’s overall achievement in a specific area of learning at a particular time”. Regardless of how summative assessment is defined, it is considered to be generally evaluative as results may be recorded as scores or grades. Summative assessment occurs in many forms but the current Junior Certificate falls into that of standardised testing. In research carried out by Shiel,Kellaghan and Moran (2010) for the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA), they suggested placing standardised testing into three different contexts. Firstly classroom use, where the individual achienvements of the students were of main concern.
He stressed that asking daily questions was imperative. The teacher should check student understanding informally by asking open ended questions about their performance at the end of the class. Each student should respond to the question on a piece of paper. Rubrics are very important in the self-assessment process. Rubrics are evaluation guides that provide feedback on several different learning objectives, recognizing where a student falls into the spectrum of proficiency for each objective.
INTRODUCTION Self assessment Assessment is vital to the education process In schools, the most visible assessments are summative. Summative assessments are used to measure what students have learnt at the end of a unit, to promote students, to ensure they have met required standards on the way to earning certification for school completion or to enter certain occupations, or as a method for selecting students for entry into further education. Ministries or departments of education may use summative assessments and evaluations as a way to hold publicly funded schools accountable for providing quality education. Increasingly, international summative assessments – such as OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) – have
 have applied different decision tree algorithms like ID3(Iterative Dichotomiser) and C4.5 to predict students academic performances and checked their accuracy to choose the appropriate algorithm that could be effectively applied. Mohammed M. Abu Tair and Alaa M. El-Halees  have given a case study on how to use different data mining techniques like Association Rule Mining, Clustering, Classification and Outlier Detection at various phases to improve the academic performance of graduate
In recent years, self-assessment has received a lot of attention. Stiggins, Arter, Chappuis, and Chappuis (2007) define self-assessment as the process during which students identify their own strengths and areas for improvement and set goals for future learning. Self-assessment is a type of assessment for learning, thought to lead to effective learning (Boud, 2005; Stiggins et al., 2007). Effective learning involves learners being able to judge their own performance and monitor what is known, what remains to be known, and what is needed to bridge the gap between the two (Boud, 2005). Student self-assessment can increase the use of self-regulated learning strategies (i.e., set objectives, evaluate progress to their objectives, and improve the quality of their learning outcome) (Panadero, Brown & Strijbos, 2015; Kostons, Van Gog & Paas, 2012 ; Brookhart, Andolina, Zuza, & Furman, 2004).
It encompasses cognitive, psychomotor, and affective competences to be assessed altogether as the basis for drawing complete description of students’ ability, indicating that the assessment takes after Holistic approach as suggested by Suherdi (2012a). Furthermore, in order to facilitate the practice of assessment on those competences, varied types of assessment are introduced by Permendikbud No. 66 (2013) both for final and on-going assessment. Those are authentic assessment, self-assessment, portfolio-based assessment, quizzes, daily tests, midterm exam, the end of semester exam, level of competence exam, the quality level of competency exams, a national exam, and the schools / madrasah
What is a 21st century competence? Some organizations put the competitiveness of the 21st century defined as lifelong learning, the key competences and 21st century skills and 21st century learning. 21st century competences mean students or the future country ownership will be able to use digital technology, communication tools, and networks to access, manage, integrate, evaluate, and create information in order to function in a knowledge society. They also able to be aware of social and cultural norms and act accordingly. They can communicate effectively in
The determining factors of student performance have attracted the attention of academic researchers from many areas. They have tried to determine which variables impact student performance in positive and negative direction. Research studies about this subject have been conducted by various academicians in various countries and areas (Garkaza et al. 2011; Tailab 2013; Sugahara and Boland 2014; Steenkamp and Baard 2009 Cheung and Kan, 2002; Kruck and Lending, 2003). The academic performance of students reflects on their ability to demonstrate the knowledge they have learnt in tests, quizzes, presentations and final examination (Barkley, 2004).