Literature Review On Tourist Gaze

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CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 THE STUDY OF TOURISM
What is tourism? Common parlance agreed and recognized that the traditional definition of tourism commonly explains ‘tourist’ as a person undertaking a tour, in which the tour refers a circular trip that is usually made for business, pleasure or education, at the end which one returns to the starting point, normally the home. (Williams, 2009) Williams (2009) mentioned that ‘Tourism’ is usually viewed as a complex concept relating not only the temporary movement of people to destinations that are extracted from their usual residential place but the organization and conduct of their activities and of the facilities and services that are necessary to meet their needs. Furthermore, the quality
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Urry proposed nine characteristics of tourist’s gaze, namely:
1. Tourism is a leisure activity. Being said that, although it is a leisure activity, it still regulates over a period of time and is organized within particular places.
2. Tourist relationships begin from a movement of people to and their stay in various destinations. It must involves a journey and a destination.
3. The journey and stay are 'out of the ordinary ' including outside of daily norms, Escapism (Short getaway), Temporary (Relaxation & freedom) and that the intention is to return ‘home’.
4. The places gazed upon are not connected to our work but normally it offer some contrasts with work including gazing at other people’s work or daily activities.
5. A considerable proportion of the population of modern societies engages in such tourist practices where many travel for "Status" and believed that if one does not travel, one shall be a ‘nobody’.
6. Places are selectively gazed upon because of having anticipation caused by media influences, daydreaming and fantasy as
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In the era, various means of guidance, such as stars, sextants, maps, the compass and global positioning systems (GPS) (Fewings, 2001) Even so, the action of way-finding itself and the principles and factors involved are actually a multifaceted set of procedure involving various variables. (Farr, A. C., Kleinschmidt, T., Yarlagadda, P., & Mengersen, K., 2012) According to Lynch (1960), way-finding possess formal definition as the consistent use and organization of sensory cues from the external environment. This justification leads to the idea that way-finding is the concept of spatial orientation. (Arthur, P., & Passini, R., 1992) This saying has evolved and way-finding performance, or navigation, is a goal-orientated movement of oneself through the environment. (Montello, 2005) The precise way in which way-finding is determined hinges on upon the research field from which the definition comes; however, the different definitions have common parlance, in which that way-finding is a destination guided motion (Allen, Kirasic, Rashotte, & Haun, 2004; Brunye´ et al., 2010) due to the combination of spatial and environmental cognition (Kitchin, 1994; Passini, 1984b) allowing people to make a string of decisions using cognitive and behavioral abilities to find their way through the built or natural

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