In America, we have this thought that all people should be able to pick themselves out of poverty and despair if they work hard enough. As reasonable as this sounds on its own, the reality is much different. Those people who advocate for the above, more often than not, fail to take into account the stress and desolation that being in poverty forces upon you. Now, the gender pay gap is not crushingly depressing, but it is rather disheartening and fails to live up to another ideal of our Founders. Women cannot achieve social mobility when they lack the basic means to raise themselves up, money.
As discussed above, this model does not work for mothers whose familial responsibilities are equally demanding. Apart from balancing household labor, creating a more sensible work-life culture would help women succeed in typically male dominated fields. Cha refers to Americas current work structure as “overwork” and argues it’s adverse effects on women in male dominated fields. Successful mothers are viewed as colder than successful fathers, and women more often suffer guilt or psychological distress when their work interferes with family life
Women were extremely mistreated in the late nineteenth-century, no matter what amount of money they had. The women that’s family had more money would be treated minimally better but the mistreatment still ranged from schooling, jobs, and how they should live their lives. Women to this day still have problems in society whether it be working the same job as men but getting paid less or playing the stay at home mom but society is still not happy with that. We have come a long way in one hundred years but universally there are a few more kinks before women will be equal to men. Vera Figner’s story I found to be an interesting one.
This cannot be explained by preference theory alone as it is in line with existing theories of racism and perceptions of ethnicity as social stratifying method. McRae paper Carries out empirical research on women’s views on work and home to test preference theory. Builds on Hakims study by adding another dimension to Hakim’s arguments: “Instead it is argued that a complete explanation of women’s labour market choices, depends as much on understanding the constraints that differentially affect women as it does on understanding their personal preferences” (McRae 2003:318) “Although support is found for Hakim’s argument that employment careers are centrally important for only a minority of women, Little evidence is adduced that it is preference that distinguish the minority from the majority” (McRae 2003:317). Women who have similar preferences may not necessarily have the same market position in terms of employment. There are other factors to consider, which can cause inequality: education, social capital, class, ethnicity,
She maintains that women in developing countries often face with gender diversity in the workplace because of the personal factors, and explains the situation by giving example of India where women are confined to work at the managerial positions. Also, from my perspective, women are not hired for executive positions because of being unskilled and less confident. It is observed when women make decisions or face with some challenges in their work. Likewise, women cannot explain their opinion when they are asked question or they are not able to indicate their extreme views whether they strongly agree or disagree with the statements at the business meeting. It is because of being less confident or shy.
What does she seek to communicate about the state of affairs for women in the contemporary workplace? Sandberg is trying to say to that what had happen in the past is still happen in the future. Women are still being oppressed and stereotyped. Genders are still not equal. “Girls are being discouraged from exhibiting” which can be one of the reason why many highly educated women are still not employed in top jobs.
Pamela, for example, was an educated girl but yet she was still a servant with a family that has little to offer due to her father’s declined fortunes. She would have been unlikely to attract a husband like Mr. B, a well-respected landowner. Also '... given the hostility towards socially or financially unbalanced matches, and given the great influence over choice of partners still exercised by parents’ (Stone, 1979, p. 189) it is no surprise that Lady Davers objects to the marriage by arguing that:
Horizontal segmentation refers to women concentrating on specific business fields, such as education, domestic service, and health and social services, as they appear to not work indiscriminately in any sector. Vertical segmentation involves a different access to titles and positions according to gender. Women mainly work in low or medium level jobs, and have less access to executive, high responsibility positions. According to Heilman and Parks-Stamm (2007), the obstacles to their promotion aren’t about their abilities, but lie in unconscious bias and stereotypes, responsible for decision makers to have wrong perceptions and condition evaluations. Due to the same socio-cultural factors, women tend to credit their success to external factors and not to themselves and their own capacities and achievements, as men do.
As far as labor market issues are considered it offers trade liberalization and labor market deregulation. So such conditionality’s are taken in consideration in order to form policies in structural adjustment and other programs which have gender implications. Both informal and formal markets perpetuate poverty and discrimination. Power hierarchies are also central to institutional approach, the failure to analyze the effect between class, gender across different institutional context means the distinctiveness of women’s experience of work is being missed. The second main argument is that labor constraints are one of the major problem for some women and then there are some serious limitations to it which have been conceptualize labor for policy purposes; by ignoring the institutional parameters of work, by de-linking the well being and work, By failing to link gender division at micro with macroeconomic and social
Gender equity faces obstacles like the lack of education for both boys and girls, and the challenges of deviating from societal stereotypes and norms. Nevertheless, if actors from the private and public sector come together, public policy can be created to strengthen women’s lives and rights. Why Gender Equality is Important A Social Justice Issue Women cannot escape poverty, be adroit, nor become autonomous, if they do not have a good-paying job. This is difficult to attain without higher education, in a society who dismisses their employment applications and that teaches women they are submissive and physically, cognitively, and psychologically inferior to men. As opposed to female advancement, women are bombarded with housewife stereotypes that emphasize their role as a sexual being whose job is to serve and please, create a family, and acquiescently look after children and the home.