Literature Review On Work Motivation

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LITERATURE REVIEW Schuarts (2003) defined motivation as a set of factors that cause people to behave in certain ways. From the management’s viewpoint, the objective is to motivate people to behave in ways that are in the organizations best interest. According to Kanfer’s (1990) work Motivation is commonly defined as the psychological process that determine or energize the direction, intensity and persistence of action within the continuing stream of experiences that characterize a person in relation to his or her work. As many have noted, such definition essentially describes operations in the small space that unifies cognition, affect and behaviour. Work motivation is not property of either the individual or the environment, but rather the psychological mechanisms and process that connect them. Ruth Kanfer, Gilad Chen, and Robert Pritchard, (2008) more precisely defined work motivation as the set of processes that determine a person’s intention to allocate personal resources across a range of possible action. This definition emphasizes the distributional aspect of motivation, and accounts for the critical process by which an individual exerts control over his behaviour. As Pritchard and Ashwood (2007) note, motivational control over behaviour is achieved largely through allocation of resources across actions. This is significant because often motivation is not actually measured; instead performance is used as a proxy measure of motivation. Work motivation has long been

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