Literature Review: Physical Appearance And Gender And Facial Attractiveness

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LITERATURE REVIEW
Nuraina Zahirah binti Azali (AP01431)
Set 3 Women today are told to beautiful. Even though we grew up knowing that beauty is subjective but as years pass we, women are reminded on what is called beautiful and what is not. As women nowadays are focusing on having the best face figures stated by the society such as having big eyes and red cheeks. Cosmetics is used in order to hide the imperfections on their faces. Cosmetics are used since past centuries wuth earliest evidence sating back to ancient times (Chaudhri & Jain, 2009; Labovitz,2012). Cosmetics are commonly used to improve facial attractiveness. According to Jackson (1992), the author of Physical Appearance and Gender, facial appearance provides strong societal implications
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Having blemishes on their face are considered unattractive and that is why, foundation is used to hide all those imperfections. Silverio (2010) stated that being attractive is focus point of women as they are presented with the ideas that they will meet someone when they grow up, fall in love , get married and all those thing will only be possible if someone s attracted to them. In order to be seen and to found a partner, women need to be find attractive. According to Jackson (1992) women being competitive with one another is no longer a surprise in today’s society. The interesting part of this is that men tend to be competitive more based on ability and intellect while women are competiting for facial attractiveness and appearance. Study done by Brinegar and Weddle (2014) also proved that only 3% of women claim themselves confident when they go out without makeup. Results from the study done by Carillo, Coleman and Hack (2014) also claims that people perceived female faces wearing cosmetics more positively than the cosmetics free faces which it was the women compared to men who reported the most positive impressions. This can be supported with past research done by Graham and Jouhar (1981) that women who wear makeup can be categorized as more feminine, attractive and confient compared to women who do not use cosmetics. Women can be seen as more attractive by the…show more content…
Women who wear cosmetics usually is said to be low confident of themselves and cosmetics are used to imrove their facial figures. According to Britton (2012) it has been found that cosmetics has a negative effect on a woman’s self esteem, body image and perception of beauty. Brinegar and Weddle 2014) claims that women can be said to has low self esteem if they tend to wear makeup more frequent and with a bigger amount. Britton (2012) also stated that pictures of perfect features of women that has been photo-shopped in advertisements caused the society to built up impossible standard of beauty which cause women to has lower confidence of themselves. In 2008, the YWVA USA reported that women’s obsession towards beauty has led them to has lower self esteem. This is supported by Cash & Cash’s (1992) study which is “ Women’s Use of Cosmetics,” which claims that public self consciousness also related with the usage of cosmetics. Britton (2012) also stated that makeup can be applied in different amounts and it also works as a booster in inflating self esteem. She also stated that different look of makeup done in different situation makes women feel more self confident. According to Robertson and colleagues (2014) there is a positive correlation betwee frequent cosmetic usage and anxiety, self consciousness, introversion and comformity. Brinegar and Weddle (2014) also stated that makeup usage is not only related to

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