The Human Spine Literature Review

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1. Intro 2. Literature review (aim for 10 Pages approx.) 2.1. The Human Spine The spine, or vertebral column, consists of “a series of articulated bones (vertebrae) that surround and protect the spinal cord.” (Mai et al, 2005). It extends from the cranium to the coccyx, and provides support while maintaining a flexible but rigid casing for the spinal cord. The stability is provided by ligaments, muscles, cartilage, tendons, and other connective tissues along with the form of the bones (PubMed Health, 2018). In humans, the vertebral column consists of 33 vertebral bodies called vertebrae which can be categorised into the 24 presacral vertebrae, the sacrum and the coccyx (O'Rahilly and Müller, 1983). The presacral vertebrae is the section…show more content…
In many cases spinal instrumentation is used. Spinal instrumentation is a term used to describe the surgical attachment of artificial tools such as hooks, rods, and wires to redistribute stresses on the vertebrae and keep them stable and aligned. Surgeons have been developing surgical correction techniques on a large scale for approximately 100 years, and the use of screws has even been reported as early as the 1800’s (Klenerman, 2002), although these were more similar to the traditional screws used in carpentry at the time. Paul Harrington however, “is acknowledged to be the first to use implants for scoliosis correction and to support fusion”, (Hasler, 2013), in the form of a stainless-steel rod with a ratchet and collar end attached to the top and the bottom of the spinal curve, secured with hooks. The pedicle screw as we know it today was first developed and used in France in 1970 when Roy-Camile et al (Roy-Camille et al, 1976) reported the use of a screw device which “went down the pedicle and into the body of the vertebra, traversing all three columns of the spine” (Mulholland, 1994). Over the next few years surgeons used their own modifications and techniques for implanting the screws. (Louis, 1986). As the popularity of this method increased, manufacturers began to…show more content…
Epidemiology | International Osteoporosis Foundation. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Mar. 2018]. Konieczny, M., Senyurt, H. and Krauspe, R. (2013). Epidemiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Journal of Children's Orthopaedics, 7(1), pp.3-9. Hasler, C. (2013). A brief overview of 100 years of history of surgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Journal of Children's Orthopaedics, 7(1), pp.57-62. Klenerman, L. (2002). The evolution of orthopaedic surgery. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press. Mulholland, R. (1994). Pedicle screw fixation in the spine. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British volume, 76-B(4), p.517. Louis, R. (1986). Fusion of the Lumbar and Sacral Spine by Internal Fixation with Screw Plates. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, (203). Roy-Camille R, Saillant G, Berteaux D, Salgado V. (1976). Osteosynthesis of thoraco-lumbar spine fractures with metal plates screwed through the vertebral pedicles. Reconstr Surg Traumatol, 15:2-16 Encyclopedia Britannica (2013). Human Vertebral Column. [image] Available at: [Accessed 17 Mar.

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