Literature Review: The Nature Of Speaking '

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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW A. Literature Review 1. The Nature of Speaking There are some experts’ opinion about speaking. One of them is Thornburry (2005: 20), he states that speaking is an activity that involves the speakers to communicate their ideas to others. The activity is unplanned and the continuity of it is based on the situation. According to Cameron (2001: 40), speaking is an act about making people understand of what the speakers’ messages they try to communicate. The speakers communicate what is on their minds by using utterances. Caroline (2003: 45) defines speaking is an oral activity in people society. It can be called as speaking if it serves as natural means of communication among the members of society. Speaking is the…show more content…
Use words and sentences stress, the rhythm, and the intonation patterns of the second language. 3. Choose appropriate words and sentence according to the social matter of the audience. 4. Organize their minds in meaningful and logical ways. 5. Use the language as means of expressing values and judgments. 6. Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses, which is called as fluency. 3. Principles in Teaching Speaking According to Brown (2007: 55-70), there are some principles in teaching speaking, they are: a. Automaticity It may be stated that the efficiency of second language learning involves a timely movement of the control of a few language forms into the automatic processing of a relatively unlimited number of language forms. b. Meaningful learning A meaningful learning can make the students get the new information and they can link them to create a stronger retention. c. The anticipation of reward In the learning process, students need to get rewards. It functions to be an appreciation of their achievement in the learning process. A reward will make students feel more motivated to learn more and more. d. Intrinsic…show more content…
What would happen if . . .? j. Spending money B. Related Studies There are some studies that has the same topic conducted by other people. The first study was conducted by Musripatul Khoiriyah. Her research entitled ‘Improving Student Speaking Ability through Communication Games. She conducted her research YMJ Junior High School Ciputat. According to her research, it shows that the students’ speaking skills are improved by using communicative games. It is because students can enjoy their learning process by playing games. The other study was conducted by Ratna Sari Dewi, Ummi Kultsum, and Ari Armadi. Their journal is entitled ‘Using Communicative Games in Improving Students’ Speaking Skills’. The research was conducted in Madania Junior High School. Based on their journal, it was also proven that communicative games can improve students’ speaking skills. C. Conceptual Framework Speaking is one of four skills that has to be mastered by the students in learning English. It is the most used skill in terms of communicating with others. Through speaking, we can communicate what messages and ideas that is on our minds. In learning foreign languages, students may find some difficulties, especially when they try to produce spoken

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