Literature Review: Total Quality Management

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Introduction
Total quality management (TQM) is an approach to management embracing both social and technical dimensions aimed at achieving excellent results, which needs to be put into practice through a specific framework. The TQM concept was originated in Japan’s manufacturing industries and also has received worldwide attention since world crisis in 1930 and driven by globalization spirit. (Kiran Vuppalapati, Sanjay L. Ahire, Tarun Gupha, 2006) However, quality paradigms have been proposed by scientists and practitioners. Global model of excellence that introduced for first time was Deming Prize of excellence that introduced for first time was Deming Prize.

Literature Review
In 1987 United States introduced a quality management Malcolm
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(1994), Eklof and Westlund (1998), and Geyskens et al. (1999), customer satisfaction was very important to the profitability of the organization. Naumann (20010 pointed that customer satisfaction is a part of strategic planning of the organization. In addition, Augus (2000) said that implementing total quality management could improve the company’s customer satisfaction. However, Concept Articulation that effective TQM processes can generate great improvements in both product and service quality which then resulted in increased customer satisfaction and organization’s profit (Gallear, D and A. Ghobadian, 2004). Moreover, high level of quality and customer satisfaction are the basics in any business operations, quality management practice is the most important and positive predictor of productivity improvement and customer…show more content…
There is no single theoretical formalization of total quality, but Deming, Juran and Ishikawa provide the core assumptions, as a "...discipline and philosophy of management which institutionalizes planned and continuous... improvement ... and assumes that quality is the outcome of all activities that take place within an organization; that all functions and all employees have to participate in the improvement process; that organizations need both quality systems and a quality culture.". However, for the business results component items for organizational effectiveness which include productivity, number of successful new product, cost performance and profitability. TQM practices also help to improve in reducing scrap, rework and stable the production process. These in turn minimize the production cost and increase productivity (Ram P. Bajpai, U. Chandrasekhar, Avinash R. Arankalle, 2014). Through continuous improvement, not only errors and defects can be prevented but also product cycle 's times can be reduced, thus improving productivity and organizational performance (Khan Jamshed H, 2003). According to Buzzel and Gale (1987), financial performance or profitability is an important measure of QM outcomes. This was supported with Deming 's (1986) argument that quality improvement leads to elimination of waste, reduction of cost and will increase profitability. Recent study by Hoang et al. (2006), noted

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