Literature Review: Urbanization And Climate Change

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Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

Urban warming has a serious energy and environmental impact. In recent years, many researches have been carried out: (1) to design, develop and apply efficient mitigation techniques for the urban environment (Hashem 1992; Akbari et al. 2001; Santamouris 2014); (2) to update knowledge and skills on the design and application of urban mitigation strategies (Gartland 2008; Akbari et al. 2016).

2.1 Urbanization and climate change
Urbanization is an intricate and vibrant procedure performing over diverse scales of space and time (Grimm et al. 2008a, b). Nowadays, cities are sprawling increasingly, and urban areas are emerging on average double faster than urban populations worldwide (Angel et al. 2011). During urbanization process, there are mainly five trends (Seto et al., 2013). First, urban areas are growing faster than urban populations objectively. Second, urban areas cause climate change due to UHI effect and altered atmospheric condensation. Third, nature resources are consumed heavily by increasing building zones. Fourth, biodiversity regions experience faster urbanization than other areas. Fifth, focus will be diverted to areas of incomplete economic development and institutional competence in the future.

Urban areas have effects on weather (Oke 1982), and urbanization is one of the most essential man-induced influences on climate. Increased urban warmth is not only discovered in the near surface air, but also through all layers of the

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