Literature Review: Wastewater Management

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Wastewater is any water that is against the usage by human. Generation of wastewater is due to activities like commercial, agricultural, industrial, domestic activities. After usage water is returned to the environment in a different as dirty water also called as wastewater. Water is never returned back to its source as the way it was withdrawn. Municipal wastewater or the sewage is the wastewater obtained by households or communities. (Tilley, et al) The liquid waste or the sewage which is discharged into the water bodies either through treatment plant or direct source is known as Effluent. The wastewater, water or other liquid which enter the reservoir or the treatment plant is
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Higher amount of wastewater is produced.
Non-sewage: The waste generated by commercial enterprises and manufacturing process. Wastewater contains rinse water which includes plating metals, residual acids, toxic chemicals and agricultural facilities. Also from washing harvested produce, cleaning in animal farms and cleaning the farm equipment.
In wastewater pollutants like physical, chemical and biological pollutants, hazardous toxins which are dissolved, other particles, suspended matters and sediments of varying size at different concentration levels and composition are present.
Chemical or physical pollutants
• Heavy metals: Lead, mercury and chromium.
• Organic material: Urea, soluble proteins, fruit sugar, drugs, pharmaceuticals, etc., which are soluble.
• Inorganic particles: Metal particles, sand, grit, ceramics, etc.
• Organic particles: Feces, food, vomit, hairs, paper fibres, plant material, humus,
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Organic origin is the sources for oxygen consumption in both the test. Amount of these substances consumed must be lower in case of wastewater treatment system. Comparatively COD is tested more. By chemical treatment, in all types of wastewater treatment plants improvement on the removal of COD is carried. BOD value is expressed as milligrams of oxygen consumed per litre of sample, on carrying the test for 5days and incubation at 20°C and the degree of organic pollution in water can be checked(Clair N. Sawyer, et al.,

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