Thus, crisis unresolved during this stage will lead children to become compulsively moralistic or overly inhibited (Apruebo, 2008). This theory aided the research in such a way that it explains how a child, especially during their play age develop a psychopathology which causes in the delay of the development of a child. Psychoanalytic Approach Dr. Sigmund Freud asserts that the first few years of life are decisive for the formation of personality. He developed five stages namely: the oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage and genital stage. In these stages especially during the phallic stage, Freud believed that identification will occur (Apruebo, 2008).
Thomas (2005) wrote that early in Piaget’s career he worked with children and his observations and interactions with the students led him to the theory that a young person 's cognitive processes are inherently different from those of adults (pp. 188-9). According to Ahmad, Ch, Batool, Sittar, and Malik (2016), Piaget showed that when compared to adults, young children think in differently and he then came to the conclusion that cognitive development was an ongoing process which occurred due to maturation and interaction with the environment (p. 72). Piaget theorized that each child was born with a basic mental structure that would serve as the foundation upon which all future learning and knowledge would be constructed. He developed his Cognitive Development Theory to explain the process by which the infant would eventually develop into an individual
ALBERT BANDURA’S SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY INTRODUCTION Bandura’s social cognitive theory highlighted the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Albert Bandura developed this theory which was influenced by social behavior theories. This is because he believed that learning theories in vogue at that time and resulted in incomplete explanations of the acquisition and performance of prosocial and deviant behavior (Schunk, 2000). According to Nevid (2009), social cognitive theory proposes that individuals do not simply respond to environmental influences, but rather they actively seek and interpret information. Children observe the people around them behaving in various ways as illustrated during the famous bobo doll experiment (Bandura, 1961 as cited by McLeod, 2011).
Mary Ainsworth, an American-Canadian developmental psychologist that studied the theories of attachment, tried to recreate a similar situation by moving it into an observation room. This experiment is called the “Strange Situation”. Infant children are being put in a stressful, unfamiliar setting and are being studied. By observing these reactions, the class of a child’s attachment is shown, which are classified into different categories: secure, avoidant and ambivalent. A child with a secure attachment is put into an attractive but unfamiliar setting.
John Bowlby was born in London in 1907. He studied and trained in psychoanalysis when it was still a new discipline (Crain 2011). Bowlby became interested in attachment when he undertook voluntary work at a school for maladjusted children. He began to notice a correlation between bad behaviour in children and the challenging backgrounds from which they came. It was his experience with two particular children, who came from such backgrounds, that was to shape the direction of his future career (Ainsworth 1974).
Bandura (1961) conduct Bobo Doll experiment to prove that children can learned behaviour through observation. He want to prove that aggressive behaviour of a child can be learned by watching an adult with aggressive behaviour. Bandura, Ross and Ross ( 1961) had conducted an experiment to support the social learning theory. Total of 72 children ( 36 boys and 36 girls) aged between 3 to 6 years old from the Stanford University Nursery School are selected as participants. Pre-tested were conducted by two researcher.
Brief History Jean Piaget was a Twentieth century Swiss psychologist and was the first psychologist to systematically study the cognitive development of children. Thomas (2005) wrote that early in Piaget’s career he worked with children and his observations and interactions with the students led him to the theory that a young person's cognitive processes are inherently different from those of adults (pp. 188-9). According to Ahmad, et al. (2005), Piaget showed that when compared to adults, young children think in differently and he then came to the conclusion that cognitive development was an ongoing process which occurred due to maturation and interaction with the environment (p. 72).
This essay will investigate Loxton’s research on children’s fears, it will discuss the ethical guildlines implemented by her research and it will evaluate how her research was conducted in a child-friendly in association with both Piagat’s theory of cognitive development, as well as Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory. The articles “Monsters in the dark and other scary things: preschooler’s self reports” and “Young children’s self-reports of coping with fears and perceived effectiveness of coping strategies in the South African context” by Helene Loxton are writings on her investigation of fears among preschoolers, the way in which children cope with these fears and the benefit of the different coping strategies implemented by children (Loxton, 2009b). One hundred and fifty-two South African children from eight different preschools, all at the average age of six years old were interviewed for twenty minutes. The interviews took the form of a semi-structured interview, whereby the children were asked to express their fears through drawings (loxton, 2009a). Piagat’s theory of cognitive development is an extensive evaluation on the nature of development in children and the role that a person’s childhood plays on their development.
Their first instinct to kill some ‘enemy’ was checked upon emotions they associate with in these situations. “Children in Iraq are seriously suffering psychologically with all the insecurity, especially with the fear of kidnapping and explosions“ , was a general appeal of the Association of Iraqi Psychologists (API). This can explain how inheritet experiences make people more close to acting instinctively upon them, which can be
BEHAVIORISM: Behaviorism is a school of thought in psychology .It is also called Learning perspective which focuses on the use of experimental procedures to study the relationship between observable behavior and the environment. The basic concept of this theory is that when a child is born he learns a lot from his environment. Child repeats, imitates and copy his parents behavior from their situations, child learns his Native language from repeating, imitating and copying others. Theory of behaviorism was first given by American psychologist John B.watson He did work on classical conditioning and said psychologist should study observable behavior of a person rather than studying his inner experiences thoughts and feeling. When a child is born he passes through various stages at the age of 6 to 8 months during this period he babbles.