For the CI group, phonological awareness were significantly correlated with language, speech production, and speech perception. Together these predictor variables accounted for 30% of variance in the CI group’s phonological awareness. Finding of research study implication are, prior to the advent of CIs, many curricular and instruction techniques used with students who are deaf avoided inclusion of sound-based instruction, such as phonics, due to the assumption that they could not access this information. For example, instead of teaching sound–letter correspondences, teachers might focus on whole-word recognition (Fletcher-Campbell,
Wardhaugh (as cited in James, 1980, p. 182) suggests that the "CA hypotheses has two versions, a strong and a weak version". According to Keshavarz (2012), "strong version" which rooted in behaviorist psychology stated that the interference from mother tongue is the only barrier in second and foreign language learning so it tries to compare two languages and finds similarities and differences to determine problematic areas and to predict errors which may happen in "interlanguage" which introduced by the American linguist Larrry Selinker. Ellis (2003) stated that "a second language learner constructs a linguistic system which is based on first language of the learner but at the same time that is different from it as well is different from the second language" (p. 34). By many practical problems with "strong approach", thereupon " weak version" came to exist which was less ambitious about predicting errors, Wardhaugh (as cited in keshavarz, 2012) stated "requires of the linguistic only that he uses the best knowledge available to him in order to account for observed difficulties in second language learning" (p. 4). The researcher in "weak version" will study errors after that they
‘Principles of linguistic change – Social factors’, by William Labov is the second volume of Labov’s three volume work of Language Change, which was preceded and followed by ‘Principles of linguistic change – Internal Factors’ and ‘Cognitive and cultural factors’ respectively. William Labov has been a prominent voice in American linguistics since the early 1960s. He pioneered an approach to investigate the relationship between language and society and developed a new area of study and analysis known as “variationist sociolinguistics” - A central doctrine of this field holds that variation or language change is inherent to the linguistic structure. The three volumes address the principles underlying linguistic change and the second volume
Ellis (2003) considers tasks which involve unspecific language use as 'unfocused tasks' and tasks which are encouraging the possessing of specific linguistic features as 'focused tasks'. Ellis maintains applying both of the mentioned tasks is possible in TBLT courses while concerning interaction hypothesis; focused tasks have contribution to second language acquisition. Ellis (2003) entitles pedagogic tasks and real-world tasks as 'unfocused' tasks and structured-based production tasks, structured-based comprehension tasks, and consciousness-raising tasks as 'focused' tasks. He believes unlike 'exercises' which mostly deals with practicing a specific form of language, in focused tasks learners are not informed of the specific linguistic focus, therefore they are free to concentrate on meaning and choose their own resources while any attention to form will be incidental (p. 141). 2.1.2.
AISARA YESSENOVA EDUC 633 12.01.2015 MY STORY OF EMBRACING LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY Before encountering the concept of plurilingual competence I have always considered my experience of languages learning to be messy and inconsistent. My maximalist preconception that only a native-like proficiency in the L2 can serve as a hallmark of successful language learning has disappeared. On my own example I illustrate that absolute mastery in a target language is elusive: being a native speaker of Kazakh I am far from speaking literary Kazakh. Hence, I do appreciate my linguistic repertoire that consists of varying levels of proficiency in Russian, English, German, Turkish and Polish, and Kazakh as a mother tongue. Some languages I acquired unconsciously,
Therefore, the goal in learning a second language was to replace proper habits with the bad ones. One major source of this problem as mentioned by Larsen- Freeman (1991) is “negative transfer” which means that errors caused by native language interference are to be avoided or minimized. Later on, with the advent of Chomsky’s theories, errors were no longer seen as evil and learning a new language was considered a rule-governed process. Svartvik (1973) proposed that errors occur as a result of failure in competence or language. Errors were to be seen as frequent in the utterances of L2 learners.
Paul Pimsleur as an audio-based language learning programme. “There exists an urgent national need for self-instructional materials in many of the world 's languages.” (Simon & Schuster, 2013) With that goal in mind he developed and recorded Modern Greek, the first of the Pimsleur Language Courses. Dr. Pimsleur wrote Modern Greek in 1963 was followed by Speak & Read Essential French, then Spanish and German were completed by 1967. It was a test of his new theory of self-instruction which resulted from his years of teaching and his study in linguistics and the psychology of language, specifically of how memory could be triggered to best implant a new language. He regarded four principles as primary to the formation of memory associations and language recall (Simon & Schuster, 2013).
The results agree with Tan and Soong (2006) that the crucial problem lies in the language used to communicate science concepts and that many students are put off by so-called scientific “jargon” and the seemingly complex sentence constructions. According to them the same kind of complexities also confuses students in learning science in English, like Chinese, French and German. Many of them might not be confused by the complexity of science concepts, but by the way, they are communicated. According to Duran (1988) for a student who has never spoken a foreign language, only a little perspective information was yield by standardized aptitude and achievement tests and this test only shows little or no
Universal grammar explains how the surface structure (say a sentence) arises out of the deep structure (vocabulary and universal set of rules for combining words). Causes and factors that hinder language acquisition: First of all we have to point out that it is not always easy to identify the reason behind the child 's delay of language and speech acquisition or his failure to learn and acquire language. The reason remains unknown for some children even with the use of the most accurate means of diagnosis and assessment. However, treatments and ways to deal with the problem are known and specified even if
There is a general supposition that he who can use a language correctly knows its grammar. However, the supposition is wrong because it is contrary to fact; children speak the language much before they learn the grammar rules. Grammar is important as a corrective measure—that is, as part of the in-built system of Understanding, which is responsible for proper use of language. There is a lot of logic in grammar, and knowledge of the grammar rules is not enough to judge a sentence as correct, because a logically invalid sentence cannot be all right in spite of its being grammatically correct. In fact, he who uses his analytical faculty to cultivate language sense and develop understanding of language use learns language better and quicker than