The thought of leadership evolved from the Great Man Theory to Trait Theory and Behavior Theory. The trait theory focuses on identifying distinctive personality traits and characteristics that are associated to successful leadership. The definitions of leadership appearing in the first three decades of the 20th century emphasized control and centralization of power (Northouse, 2016, p.2). In the early 1900s research began to see if leaders possessed certain traits or characteristics that would distinguish
Transformational leadership originated with James MacGregor Burns in 1978 and it is a con-cept in which leaders use idealized influence or charisma, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration to persuade followers (Hautala, 2006; Homrig, 2006; Judge& Piccolo, 2004).
There have been a variety of theorists who have tried to understand how good leaders acquire their skills and whether the components which make up a successful leader are hereditary or learned. Many Studies have been made using twins to identify that about forty percent of differences in personality are hereditary. (Vernon et al., 1998) From this we can see that it is not only a matter of whether a person in born with these skills but one must also build on them to become a successful leader.
In addition, this can proved by a study of leadership in Oxford House, finding that transformational and transactional styles of leadership were both positively correlated to each other, demonstrating that both are effective when used together (Komer, Jason, Harvey, & Olson, 2015). Traits, attributes, and behaviors of transactional leadership are based on the leader’s ability to motivate followers, while providing an appealing vision, stimulating challenges, and being an inspiring role model (Dóci, Stouten, & Hofmans, 2015). These also include behaviors such as being proactive, innovating, risk-taking, challenging others, and shaping meaning and creating purpose (Dóci et al., 2015). It was also found that transformational leaders transfer their enthusiasm and high power to their followers through active modelling, increasing the power as a component of work engagement in others (Hayati, Charkhabi, & Naami,
According to him, leaders and followers are characterized by differences in motivation, power and skills. Leaders and followers engage and work towards a common goal. He introduced two separate forms of interactions between leaders and followers. In transactional leadership, leaders and followers bargain on the exchange of valuable things which creates value for them. There is no deep connection between leaders and followers , they do not have any shared and common believes and they do not work together towards a common organizational purpose. This kind of leadership has limited potential for success. Transforming leadership occurs when one or more people engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers connect with each other and help each other to get better in terms of motivation and morality. According to Burns, this transformation and change of leaders and followers is due to transforming leadership. This leadership can give favorable long term performance. According to Burns the two leadership styles- transforming and transactional are completely opposite to each other and which exist exclusively.
Leadership is an essential task in management (Weihrich, et al., 2008), as it is an important factor that contributes enormously to the over-all wellbeing of the organisations (Odumeru & Ifeanyi, 2013). As stated by Cox (2001), transactional and transformational are two important types of leadership. The differentiation amongst these two types of leadership was initially made by Downton (1973), as cited in (Barnett, et al., 2001), and introduced by Burns (1978) in his descriptive work on political leaders.
by Peter Northouse (SAGE Publications, 2016). The leadership approaches and theories covered in the texts included the Trait Approach, Skills Approach, Behavioral Approach, Situational Approach, the Path-Goal Theory, Leader-Member Exchange Theory, Transformational Leadership, Authentic Leadership, Servant Leadership, Adaptive Leadership, the Psychodynamic Approach, Team Leadership, leadership ethics, and the impact of culture and gender on
Through self-reflection and academic readings, I have discovered that I identify with three different leadership theories. During the first meeting in a Strength Based Leadership class, we were asked to write our leadership history. The class then began an ongoing exploration of various leadership theories. Upon reviewing my leadership history from the first class and synthesizing the information from the theories that were examined, I discovered that I most resonate with the Trait Leadership Theory, the Skills Leadership Theory, and the Path-Goal Leadership theory. These theories are leader focused, describing the process and techniques a leader uses to accomplish goals. This paper will examine the three leadership theories, identify how they apply to my practice, and explore how these theories interact with each other.
Rubinsteim, J., Meyer, D. & Evans, J. (2001). Executive control of cognitive processes in task switching. Journal of Experimental Psychology.
This annotated bibliography has been prepared to provide readers the essential information on leadership and management.
Organizational change is the process in which an organization changes its structure, culture, technologies, strategies or operational methods to affect change within the organization and the effects of these changes towards the organization. Organizational change can either be continuous or only a period of time. Small organization must adapt to survive against the bigger competitors. Organizations must look for new ways to do things more efficiently and cost efficient in order to step up their game and be ahead of their competitors. One of the barriers of change in an organization include lack of employee involvement. Employees always have a fear towards change and even the most loyal employees will resist the change. The biggest mistake some
The main purpose of this article is to stress the emotional impact employee’s feel under a leader who utilizes the LMX theory. Cheol Young and Won-Woo Park implemented a study the delved into the in role performance effects employee’s often felt in regards to their commitment to a job. The studied concluded that as a result of the leaders utilizing the LMX theory, it provided a clear impact on an employee’s emotional health as well as their commitment to that job. The article provides a clear objective to the LMX theory and greatly supports how the LMX theory can make those not included in the inner circle of the leader can impact not only their employment but their emotional and mental well being. Utilizing the study concluded by Cheol Young and Won-Woo will provide clear support towards the LMX research theory as a basis for emotional inadequacies.
This paper is going to encompass different leadership theories and their relevance to my own personal personality and method of leadership. There will be information on the advantages and disadvantages of the leadership theories and information on each including examples. The purpose of this paper is to view various kinds of leadership theories and apply them to a real-life scenario.
The five keys of elements of leadership are leader-follower, influencing, organizational objective, changes and people. Each of elements works differently, the first key world leader-follower is leaders influence a behavior to the followers as well as follower also influence leaders. Second, Influencing is change role from somebody. For example in leaders and followers relationship, when leader give any inspiration toward followers and then followers change something, it is consider as influences. Third, organizational objectives are based on leaders and followers outcome from what they willing to accomplish in the future. Being a member of organization need to work together in order to produce outcomes that both leaders both followers
“An organizational strategy is the sum of the actions a company intends to take to achieve long-term goals (Johnson, 2016)”. Organizational strategy is derived from a company 's mission, which tells why an organisation is in business. There are three important aspects of organizational strategy such as resources, scope and the company’s core competency (Johnson, 2016). As Johnson (2016) postulated that top management produces the larger organizational strategy, while middle and lower management adopt goals and plans to satisfy the overall strategy. Germano (2010) states that leadership has a significant impact upon organisation and its success, whereby leaders determine values, culture and employee motivation. Additionally, he further added