The latter consists of the base structures needed for the said societies production and operation; structures such as transport, energy and healthcare are part of the infrastructure. Institutions such as the justice system, military and family, among others, make up the superstructure. Marx viewed the 'state' as being in a relationship with society as one of control and subservience, respectively, therefore creating conflict. In Marx's theory of the state, he postulates the terms of mode/means of production, where the labour force are oppressed by the elite and owners of the production. He conferred that there were different stratifications, which formed economic bases, creating an ideological superstructure which consisted of juridical and
Communities or groups are considered marginalized on account of their distance from the centre’s political or economic power and consequent limited access to the decision making processes. Some marginalized groups are deliberately created and that limits their access to education and social welfare schemes. Some groups are marginalized because of the attitudes and actions of the dominant or majority group. This is a process often undertaken by the institutions controlled by the dominant powerful groups in society. Distinctions can be made between marginal groups and marginalized groups in society.
Often times structural violence is invisible to the average individual. It is a global issue that impacts a multitude of ethnic groups, with varying degrees of inhumanity and injustice. It is prevalent in numerous countries, India’s social system, Caste, is an example of this dehumanizing violence. Structural Violence Paul Farmer’s work, “On Suffering and Structural Violence: A View from Below,” reveals the unscrupulous hierarchy that exists among societies.
The characteristics of cultural imperialism can be observed not only in the global scale, but also countywide among different groups of people in the same society. Cultural imperialism in the borders of one country involves disseminating the values of the authority and forcing others to leave their personal identities, cultural values to obey the mainstream ideas. As Iris Young (2004) mentions in his article “Five Faces of Oppression”, the individuals who are persecuted by social colonialism are both evaluated by stereotypes and made to feel imperceptible. The stereotypes characterize what they can and can 't be. In the meantime, these stereotypes turn individuals into a mass of others who lack separate personalities (p.4).
The concept of social inequality tackles the existence of unequal opportunities for people of different status and positions in the society. While it normal to have a form of stratification in the society, there are situations that remain dire and need urgent intervention to try and bring about a balance. There are various dimensions of social inequality including income, wealth, power, and ethnicity. Social inequality has adverse effects on citizens of a particular nation especially on the quality of life due to unequal access to important social amenities. In Tracy Kidder’s Mountains Beyond Mountains, the author has a particular focus on several aspects of life in Haiti.
In addition to the external environment (the market), in which they compete for sales and revenue, they are also embedded in a complex internal environment. As part of a larger group, their interests become subordinated to those of the whole group as reflected in the overall strategic plan and budget. They find themselves allocated tasks that comprise only a piece of a grander strategic design and thus are allocated resources accordingly. Further, they are likely to find themselves engaged in a more-or- less overt political struggle over their respective places in the overall design and over their share of the centrally controlled resource.” One of Grunberg’s cases (Imperial) is very illustrative on this since it
Merton explained deviance in terms of means and ends as part of his strain/anomie Theory. According to Merton, there is a consensus in the society regarding the socially approved goals which are to be attained through the socially approved means. He stated that anomie is the state where the social goal (end) and the legitimate means to attain them do not correspond with each other. Merton’s theory explains deviance as the result of social strains because of the way the society is structured. For some, the societal strain becomes overwhelming to the point where they commit a deviant behavior as a way to manage the strain.
Push factors involve: • Class and Caste structure- G.S Ghurye in his polemical work had stratified the Indian society into different segments and established the functioning of different divisions by calling each division a caste. According to him, caste system is a very intrinsic part of the Indian society. However, the stratification of society into different caste groups led to the emergence of various classes and adversely contributed to human trafficking. The people of the lower castes were always subject to exploitation by the upper castes. As the upper castes enjoyed a certain degree of influence and respectability in the society, the lower castes not being the owner of such powers and privileges, were subject to victimization on account of their vulnerability.
All of these conditions are brought about through the subordination of a democratic society to the market. Economic development under neoliberal capitalism cannot be democratic because it sacrifices the public sphere for economic security, capital, and the imperatives of profitability. Democracy thus loses touch with the working class (or lower socioeconomic strands of the population)—a massive part of its constituency—simply because it is unable to participate in the games of the market. Individuals and communities then lose authority and democratic control over issues like ecosystem protection, public education systems, rent and housing laws, natural resource extraction, and employer relations, all because economic development prioritizes the demands of the market over civic needs and democratic quality. The result, is what this paper identifies as pseudo-democracies, or states that maintain democratic governments as a mass display, instead of democratic systems driven by the people, for the people, from
But this shouldn’t be so because these conflicts are characterized by the entanglement of a host of actors, issues and motives. In order to explain the non-conventional dimensions of these conflicts, the groups fighting concentrated not over state-related issues like political power, but over access to profitable or essential resources that profits them and help them develop. For instance; Niger Delta conflict, Ife and Modakeke, Boko Haram insurgency etc. These conflicts are being carried out because Nigeria is a weak and failed state in the sense that there are other actors on the stage stronger than the state. Nigeria is an actor among other actors in operation in the