Bottom-up critiques view local bureaucrats as the main actors in policy delivery and conceive of implementation as negotiation processes within networks of implementers (Handbook of Public Policy Analysis, Ch7, p90). In addition, bottom-up theorists claim that if main actors, local bureaucratic, are not allowed preference in the implementation stage with respect to local condition state, thus the policy will be likely to face its failure (Matland, 1995, 148). The classical bottom-up researchers are: The American researchers Lipsky (1971, 1980) and Elmore (1980) besides Swedish scholar Hjern (1982), also in cooperation with other authors such Porter and Hull. Lipsky (1971, 1980) analyzed the behavior of public service workers (e.g., teachers, social workers, police officers, doctors), which he called “street-level bureaucrats.”. Correspondingly, goals, strategies, objectives, and activities must be allocated with special recognition to the beneficiaries that policy directly impacts.
Leaders must be able to adapt to change, depending on the culture, as the environment shifts and develops. Leaders are also involved in managing the culture by establishing an explicit strategic direction, communicating that direction, and defining the organizational vision and values. In other words, additional skills are needed in today’s leaders so that they will be able to manage the organizational culture. This line of research, however, has not Leadership theory 273 identified a model for different styles of leadership given different cultural factors. Other leadership theories emerged out of this work, including the vertical dyad linkage theory, also known as the leader-member exchange theory (Graen, 1976).This theory explains the nature of the relationship between leaders and followers and how this relationship impacts the leadership process.
Meanwhile, external assessment focuses on the deeper analysis of political, economic, social and technological which is affecting the missions and vision of a company. Situation assessment is a systematic process that includes collecting the data, making analysis towards the information
According to Porter (1996) Strategy is the creation of a unique and valuable position; a clear strategy statement can be used as a guiding light for making difficult choices (Collins and Rukstad, 2008: 2). For an organization to successfully achieve its objectives and establish appropriate strategies, it must develop a critical understanding of its competitive environment (Pitt and Koufopoulos, 2011: 163; Wilmot, 2002 cited in Selimi and Selimi, 2011: 5) by conducting PESTLE and SWOT analysis (Appendix 1). The following paragraphs would simultaneously analyze Toyota’s strategy in terms of Relevance, Practicality, Sustainability and meeting key expectations (Pitt and Koufopoulos, 2011: 172-173). Research has shown that strategic thinking and planning have had a strong impact on the Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) which has seen it establish a unique
EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA: THE PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES OF TEACHING/LEARNING HISTORY IN NIGERIA Afolabi, O. Oluwaseun Peace and Conflict Studies Programme, Institute for Peace and Strategic Studies, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Email: email@example.com Abstract The paper discusses the challenges facing history teaching in Nigeria. The scope of the study is limited to private/public schools in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study starts by tracing the problem from the advent of missionaries to Nigeria in which their purpose of establishing mission schools was not to teach African history but to evangelize and to produce middlemen who will act as junior officers. The findings show that history as a subject was
These pressurize the DVLA into a state of complexity in the pursuit to strive to undertake its core abilities in providing its services by upholding Legislative Instrument 2180 (Ghana, 2012) that seeks for mandatory formal training for prospective drivers as done in Western Countries especially in Denmark. The leaders and subordinates staff have been tasked to these challenges to the next level in which DVLA is being seen as vital the image and towards realizing the vision and mission of the DVLA. Lankau, Carlson and Nelson (2006) explored the mediating effects of role conflict and role ambiguity on the relationship between leader behavior and subordinates acceptance of leader. In a sample of university alumni, both role conflict and role ambiguity were found to be significant mediators of the relationship (Lankau, Nelson, & Carlson,
The purpose and research questions of this study The main objective of this article is to research and investigate whether cultures have a specific impact on leadership styles. With the help of this article we should be able to answer the question how cultures can influence different styles of leaderships; whether leadership styles are culturally linked and/or culturally biased. In terms of leadership, this paper will primarily show whether, based on the culture characteristics, it is more a transactional type of leadership or more a transformational type of leadership. In order to keep everything explicit, Malaysia and Australia are taken as two examples within this research paper. In short, we will learn: • Different leadership styles
Other sources of insecurity in the GoG are the internal and international governance processes and the distinct pressure regional and external geopolitics exerts on the security architecture of the region (Shafa, 2011). The concept has also been seen as the absences of maritime security (Jendayi Frazer, Assistant Secretary for African Affairs Cotonou, Benin November 15, 2006) which affects economic, political, and security affairs. Maritime insecurity requires the adoption of a holistic approach that includes improving governance and the economies in the Gulf of Guinea region as a foundation for stability. Through maritime security, African countries can
1. Introduction This assignment will discuss the importance of local governments as platform for enhancing participatory governance and the vehicle for grassroots socio-economic development. It will first discus the concept of local self-government, the role of government in driving LED, the challenges faced by local government in giving effective service delivery and strategies in dealing with the challenges. 2. Local Self-government.
BALANCING THE INTERACTION BETWEEN INDUSTRIALIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IN LAGOS METROPOLIS Abstract This study is primarily about the interface between industrialization and environmental pollution in Lagos metropolis. It aims at proffering strategic ways of balancing the interaction between the duos so that the citizens can enjoy the benefits of industrialization without any physical, chemical or material limitations. To achieve this goal, the study employed the use of pollution control theory as theoretical guide in explaining the linkages between industrialization and environmental pollution in Lagos State, Nigeria. Methodology adopted in the study includes explanatory survey design in which secondary data extracted from existing literatures were used. The finding of the study supports existing argument that Lagos state is losing the quality of environmental goods like water, land and air to pollution arising from industrial activities on daily basis.