Victorian literature is a literature written in England during the reign of Queen Victoria, or roughly from 1837 -1901. It is largely characterized by the struggle of working people and the success; of right over wrong. It happened to be in the Victorian era (1837–1901) that the novel became the leading classification in English. Women played an important part in this rising popularity both as authors as well as readers. Little Women is a novel by American author Louisa May Alcott (1832–1888), the title of the book was meant to highlight the inferiority of women as compared to men, or, alternatively, describe the lives of simple people, "unimportant" in the social sense.
As with all the poems in the World’s Wife, Duffy follows the form of a dramatic monologue and through the first stanza draws attention to the history of male domination and female suppression by listing famously victimized women and revealing in Mrs. Beast’s tone, bitter resentment. Mrs. Beast rejects any wish associated with the male-oriented society reflecting Duffy’s rejection of society’s pre-occupation with victimized women and keeping them silenced. Carol Ann Duffy is considered to be one of the most admirable poets because she creates existing poetry in a form that uses biblical, historical, mythical, fictional figures, whose voice have not previously been heard. This is relevant for the portrayal of the male-oriented society because famous figures like Beauty and the Beast have been mentioned in
In Gothic fiction we find different kinds of women, which embody the views of society towards women in the late nineteenth-century in England and Ireland. Thus we find strong, innocent and pure women like in Stoker’s Dracula, but also dangerous and powerful ones as we can see in Le Fanu’s “Carmilla”. However, we also could talk about some novels in which the role of women has disappeared completely, as we can appreciate in Stevenson’s The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. The aim of this paper is to analyse the role of women in these texts, paying special attention to Stoker’s novel, and to draw an overview of how they were represented in the society of the nineteenth-century. Freeman claims in his essay “E.
Nora has only sacred duties as a wife and as a mother.In this connection, we can pertinently cite what Virginia Woolf in her work A Room of one’s Own asserts that,“Men have treated women as inferiors for many years. It is the men who define everything in the society (28)”.In this play, Ibsen shows inequality in Nora’s household, patriarchal system and Nora’s attitude to fight against
Olympe de Gouges can be considered as the pioneer feminism advocate. Her famous work “Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen” (DRWFC) in 1791 was highly controversial. Her work propagated to place women at the centre of politics and society alongside with men. This was highly contentious as women had been subservient to men for much of history. Her work was grounded in the Enlightenment ideas of thinkers such as Diderot, Voltaire, and Montesquieu who questioned the unequal treatment of women (Racz 1952, 151).
Modern feminism is prevalent in movements such as “Me Too” and “Say Her Name” to diminish sexism and oppression felt on all fields. Modern feminism has been made to destroy the history of racism, homophobia and cisgender embedded principles of historical feminism. One of the most influential and intersectional feminist works are that of Audrey Lorde. In Audrey Lorde’s book, Sister Outsider she explains the sexism felt by black lesbian women and the intersectional oppressions and the lack of social acceptance. Lorde explains the homophobia she faces in the black community, the racism she feels in the LGBT community and the intense homophobia and racism embedded in
Plus, she rescues many elements of the first wave and she combines them with new ideas such as the mechanization of the female sexuality, women’s choice (maternity or no maternity), and sexual liberation. The metaphors about literary maternity and childbirth were quite numerous in both 18th and 19th centuries, trying to put in a parallel skeleton the process of literary writing and pregnancy. As Elaine Showalter claims, “feminist criticism written in the biological perspective generally stresses the importance of the body as a source of imagery.”(Showalter, 188) Another important protagonist in these Neo-feminist theories is Betty Friedan with The Feminine Mystique (1963), where she explores the idea of women searching personal realization
While boys learn maleness by rejecting femaleness via separating themselves from their mothers, girls establish feminine identities by embracing the femaleness of their mothers. Girls identify with their mothers, a sense of connection that is incorporated into the female personality” (Collins 52).Thus they are mutually determine by each other. The only essential difference between them is that one is the original, experienced and fully realized self and the other is merely the mirror and above to attain its originality. In this way, again an identification and understanding takes place between the daughter and the mother. The daughter in Manju Kapur’s Difficult Daughters and Saru in The Dark Holds No Terrors are quite different from the qualities of above mentioned daughters.
This novel, therefore, focuses on English middle-class women, specifically single women, who become subject to victimisation in the contemporary society. Both stories illustrate a great deal in how the traditional gender roles were subverted and especially towards the role of the female gender in the society during the industrial revolution period leading us to pose the question “To what extent are gender roles subverted in “North and South” and “Shirley?” In this case, by discussing subversion, I imply ‘undermine’, or ‘bring-down’ since its one of the common themes illustrated in the two novels. The word ‘subverted’ is suited for the topic of discussion as it clearly shows the meaning of what goes on in the two novels; that is, the female gender has been undermined, and they also overcome the stereotype (they subvert the stereotype). In North and South, Margaret comes out to subvert that notion, and bring about the idea of being
There exists a very real relationship between the Female Gothic novel of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century and the social context of women at that time. This new class of fiction is essentially treated by women as it addresses women’s experiences offered an opportunity to address “the hidden, unspeakable reality of women’s lives: not just their lives in the private inner world of the psyche, but also their social and economic lives in a real world of patriarchal institutions” (DeLamotte 165). Notwithstanding the success of male Gothicists, Gothic fiction is perceived as a female-dominated genre as Leonard Wolf writes: Despite the triumphs of Lewis and Maturin, the Gothic novel was something of a cottage industry of middle-class