3.1. Materials and microorganisms Eugenol (99 %); Coniferyl Aldehyde (98 %); Ferulic Acid (99 %); Vanillin (99 %); Vanillic Acid (99 %) were obtained from Sigma Aldrich. Methanol used for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was purchased from Merck and was HPLC grade. All the other chemicals used were of analytical grade and commercially available. The Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIM 2100 bacterial strain was obtained from National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (NCIM), Pune and was provided by Department of Bio-Engineering, BIT Mesra.
Hydrolysis of the 6-membered lactone ring of simvastatin occurs in vivo and this produces the beta,delta-dihydroxy acid which is an active metabolite structurally alike to HMG-CoA. After hydrolyzation, simvastatin competes with HMG-CoA for HMG-CoA reductase, which is a hepatic microsomal enzyme. This reaction is a rate limiting step in the biosynthetic pathway for cholesterol. The quantity of mevalonic acid, a precursor of cholesterol, is decreased by the hindrance with the activity of this enzyme. High levels of total-C, LDL-C and reduced levels of HDL-C have been shown by epidemiological studies to be linked with the progression of atherosclerosis and elevated cardiovascular risk.
In addition, some related terms such as “microbeads” and “beads” are used alternatively. Microspheres can be defined as solid, homogeneous, monolithic, approximately spherical particles in the size range of about 0.1 – 1000 µm and are widely used as drug carriers for sustained or controlled release. They are made of polymeric, waxy or other protective material that is biodegradable synthetic polymers and modified natural products such as starches, gums, proteins, fats and waxes, natural polymeric material such as albumin, gelatin; synthetic polymers. These “spheres” can then release the drug via the surface or bulk degradation of the polymer, with release kinetics controlled by type of polymer used and its properties. Solvents used to dissolve polymeric materials are chosen according to the polymer and drug solubility and stability, process safety and economic
Antoine Villiers in late 19th century discovered the CDs and reported about these crystalline substances in his research article (Figure 2A). In the primary state of development, CDs obtained from digestion of starch by Bacillus amylobacter. The material is resembled with cellulose and did not show reducing properties, so he named this product as “cellulosine” . After 12 later Franz Schardinger a bacteriologist, who described the fundamental properties of this dextrin and also report about the basic chemistry and complex formation properties of these molecules (Figure 2B). Later, he became a “Founding Father” of cyclodextrin chemistry [2-4].
The antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured on the basis of the scavenging activity of the stable DPPH free radical (as cited in Dong et al., 2014). Evaluation of antioxidant activity of astaxanthin through DPPH assay was modified according to the procedures reported by Lewis (2012). 12 mls of 0.1 mM DPPH solution with methanol was prepared. A measurement of 0.005 g of DPPH was added to 12 mls of methanol which was measured with a graduated cylinder into a small foil-wrapped flask. A number of 11 two ml microcentrifuge tubes were assembled and was labeled as: Tubes 1a-c through 3a-c: Product Extract Dilution 1 through 3 (repeat three times for 9 tubes), Tube 4: Positive control, α-tocopherol and Tube 5: Negative control, solvent only.
 PPI are first line of choice in moderate to severe GERD. At beginning, start with once daily dosing, before first meal of the day.  Simultaneous use of antacid does not affect effectiveness. Thus, EH can use Maalox suspension for symptom control and Pantoprazole will help to control overall acid reflux.  (Safety) Pantoprazole use is safe, also if it is used for long term.
In part 2, using the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the enzyme, identified the inhibitor (75 mM phenylalanine) as an uncompetitive inhibitor. This is because Vmax and Km decrease when the inhibitor is added (7). The function of reversible, uncompetitive inhibitors is the removal of the enzyme substrate complex from circulation. This is done by the reaction creating an enzyme-substrate-inhibitor complex. An example of a common drug that is a noncompetitive inhibitor is the herbicide, Roundup.
But it was formerly known as High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. HPLC is an instrumental system to perform the technique of analytic chemistry to separate the chemical or biological compounds which are non-volatile and thermally-unstable such as pharmaceutical products, organic compounds, food and beverages, natural products and others. HPLC can be used in many fields. As examples, HPLC can be used in medical field to detect the concentration of antibiotics or vitamins levels in blood serum. HPLC also make its contribution to pharmaceutical manufacturer.
Ionic liquids can produce higher ionic strength in solution medium and it is a possible reason for decreasing of solubility in acidic medium whenever CVD is fully ionized. Similar pattern is observed in solubility studies of CVD and corresponding IL forms in HCl 0.1 M and 0.01 M. However, solubility was considerably improved in compared with HCl 0.1 M, 0.2 M). It could be related to the low concentration of chloride ion. The maximum solubility was observed in CVD because in this pH, it is fully ionized and ionic strength in compared with CVD is less than CVD’s ionic
Introduction Toluene, according to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry system (IUPAC) – methylbenzene, is most commonly used to synthesize benzoic acid. The importance of benzoic acid in modern world is due to its uses: the acid and its salts are used as preservatives in food: benzoic acid is globally known as E210 and sodium benzoate as E211. The benzoic acid and its precursors are also used in pharmacy and hygiene products : the shampoo and shower gel that I am using all contain sodium benzoate. With its increasing production I was curious to explore the synthesis methods for benzoic acid and try it in the laboratory. Interestingly, in the U.S. the production of benzoic acid exceeds over 139 tons per year and there are