In topical pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetics, glycerin is used primarily for its humectants and emollient properties. Glycerin is used as a solvent or co solvent in creams and emulsions .Glycerin is additionally used in aqueous and non aqueous gels and also as an additive in patch applications. In parenterals formulations, glycerin is used mainly as a solvent and co- solvent. In oral solutions, glycerin is used as a solvent, sweetening agent, antimicrobial preservative and viscosity-increasing agent. It is also used as a plasticizer and in film coatings Glycerin is used as a plasticizer of gelatin in the production of soft-gelatin capsules.
Carboxylic polymers are used as thickeners, suspending agents and stabilizers. They are utilized in a wide variety of personal care products, pharmaceuticals and household cleaners. Most Carboxylic polymers are high molecular weight acrylic acid chains, usually cross-linked with polufunctional allylic ethers, and are available as powders or liquids [1-4]. They are also used to stabilize, suspend, and control the release of pharmaceutical products [5-6]. At low concentrations, suspensions flow easily with a slippery feel.
5.3 OPTIMIZATION OF DRUG LOADED NLCs Preparation of Diclofenac NLCs involves various process variables out of which following were selected for the optimization of the formulation: 1. Effect of varying polymer concentration (Stearic acid). 2. Effect of varying drug concentration (Diclofenac). 3.
INTRODUCTION HPC is non ionic semisynthetic polymer. Hydroxypropyl cellulose is also commonly known as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) or hypromellose which is a coating agent and film-former and used as an inactive ingredient in the pharmaceutical industry. It has also been used as a rate-controlling polymer for sustained-release dose forms in pharmaceutical industry. CHEMISTRY HPC is an ether of cellulose. In HPC some of the hydroxyl groups in the repeating glucose units have been hydroxypropylated which forms -OCH2CH(OH)CH3 groups using propylene oxide.
This produced the parent C40 carbon skeleton from which all the individual variations are derived (Britton, 1995). Carotenoids are hydrophobic, lipophilic substances, and are virtually insoluble in water. They dissolve in fat solvents such as acetone, alcohol, ethyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, and chloroform. Carotenes are readily soluble in petroleum ether and hexane. Xanthophylls dissolve best in methanol and ethanol.
2.1 DRUG PROFILE 2.1.1 Betamethasone Valerate INTRODUCTION Name Betamethasone Valerate Official in Indian Pharmacopiea, British Pharmacopiea, United state Pharmacopiea Approval Status CDSCO - 2001 Description A glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralo corticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Structure CAS no 2152445 Solubility Freely soluble in chloroform; soluble in ethanol (95 per cent); practically insoluble in water and in light petroleum.
Keywords: Ketoconazole, Antifungal agents, Optimization, Baker Lonsdale model, Peppas model, Higuchi plot INTRODUCTION The main objective was to design diffusion controlled microsphere drug delivery system of ketoconazole in order to sustain the delivery of the drug and thereby reduce the gastrointestinal disturbances and dose related adverse effects like hepatic dysfunction and allergic reactions as observed with conventional oral dosage form of ketoconazole (tablet). Ketoconazole microspheres prepared using dichloromethane, one of the class II solvents proposed in ICH guidelines (Q3C) to be used in the pharmaceutical industry because of their low toxic potential, as the coacervating agent to reduce residual solvent. MATERIALS
To indicate the separation effect for different ratio of p-xylene to methyl acetate more clearly, Fig. 4 shows the dependence of selectivity on the water/acetic acid mass ratio in the initial mixture for various different ratios of p-xylene to methyl acetate in the initial mixture. These results reveal the general capability of mixed solvent to extract acetic acid from the aqueous phase at different feed composition. As mentioned earlier, methyl acetate has been put up in this industrial operation, since it was available as the byproduct of terephthalic acid production. As can be seen in Fig.4, a higher ratio of p-xylene to methyl acetate can produce higher selectivity of acetic acid against water.
Description: Magnesium stearate is a very fine, light white, precipitated or milled, impalpable powder of low bulk density, having a faint odour of stearic acid and a characteristic taste. The powder is greasy to the touch and readily adheres to the skin. Functional category: Tablet and capsule lubricant. Physicochemical properties: Solubility: Practically insoluble in ethanol (95%), slightly soluble in water and ether. Melting point : 117-150°C (commercial samples).
One noticeable exception is the so-called “Atwal modification” of the Biginelli reaction. In this scheme, an enone(a) is first condensed with a suitable protected urea or thiourea derivative(b) under almost neutral conditions. Deprotection of the resulting 1,4-dihydropyrimidine(c) with HCl or TFA leads to the desired DHPMs.20 Scheme-3: Shutalev et al described another approach to DHPMs synthesis. This synthesis is based on the condensation of readily available R-tosylated (thio)ureas(a) with the enolates of acetoacetates or 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds. The resulting hexahydropyrimidines(b) need not to be isolated and can be converted directly into DHPMs.