Low Back Pain

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Low back pain is a major issue across the world and it can be either specific or nonspecific (s6).1 Specific low back pain refers to any diagnosis that can be attributed to an infection, disease, trauma, injury, or structural deformity. Specific low back pain diagnosis is rare and only makes up 15 to 20 percent of low back pain cases, meaning most back pain is nonspecific (s6).1 Nonspecific low back pain is pain localized in the area of the back below the margin of the last ribs and above the inferior gluteal lines, which could include lower limb pain and numbness.2 (s5) Nonspecific low back pain is a major problem around the world and is one of the main causes of disability (s3).3 The characteristics of nonspecific LPB are heavy pain that…show more content…
The goals of exercise therapy is to abolish pain, improving strength of the lumbar and abdominal regions, maintaining range of motion, and improving endurance (s4).4 Exercise is beneficial for many disorders, including nonspecific low back pain. Exercise training increases the body’s endorphins, which alters the body’s perception of pain by reducing depression and anxiety (S4).4 Therapeutic exercise promotes reduction of pain intensity and disability for long periods, while changing someone’s mental view of the pain or his or her cognitive behavior, is effective in reducing pain for short periods (s5).2 Studies have shown that segmental stabilization exercises for individuals with chronic LBP reduced pain and disability. There was a significant pain reduction and 89% of the participants considered their pain to be acceptable. Exercises that promote contraction of independent muscles of the deep trunk are beneficial for reducing disability and pain for those with chronic…show more content…
According to (text), one with nonspecific low back pain should not exercise during a flare up. Pain can interfere with a patient’s ability to an exercise test or reach maximal exercise levels. Patient’s cause of LBP can vary for example; some may experience pain when standing for long periods of time, while others may experience pain while sitting and it is best to avoid exercise that causes the patient pain. Aggressive testing protocols should also be avoided since it can cause posttest soreness for the patient and any type of back pain or soreness should be avoided. A submaximal protocol that is unlikely to cause a flare up is most appropriate for individuals who experience pain with activity (book).5 (p467) It is also important to screen for red flags to exclude possible specific conditions. These include back pain with radiation below the knee level or sensory motor dysfunction. These patients should not be treated and should be referred to a specialist for

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