Moreover, births attended by skilled staff are only 38.3% in areas with an urban population share below 20% and 78.0% in areas with that share between 50% and 90%. Urban parents are twice as likely as rural parents to have a child attended by skilled staff. The number of community health workers per 1,000 inhabitants is higher in areas with a less than 20% urban population share than in areas with that share between 50% and
3.8 MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM Childhood pneumonia is the single most leading cause of death among under-five children. According to 2000 WHO report around 156 million new episodes of childhood pneumonia occurred globally, in that 95% of them in developing countries, out of the above-mentioned cases 8.7% of pneumonia are life threatening and required hospital admissions (Rudan,2008). The incidence was estimated at 0.29 episodes per child-year in developing and 0.05 episodes per child year in developed countries (Rudan et al.2013). In the year 2010 the incidence was 0.22 episodes per child-year though it is reduced from the year 2000, it remains an important public health problem (CHERG, 2013). Africa and Southeast Asia are responsible for 70% of the worldwide deaths due to pneumonia (Singh 2005).
Among the adolescent girls aged 10-19 years, 27% are severely anaemic and 49% are moderately anaemic (NFHS- 3). Almost 56% of adolescent girls (aged 15-19 years) suffer from some form of anaemia, of these 39% are mildly anaemic, while 15% and 2% suffer from moderate and severe anaemia. Nearly 50% of Indian adolescent girls in the age group of 15-19 are underweight, with a BMI of less than 18.5 (UNICEF -2012). It has been noticed that compared to adolescent boys, adolescent girls have lower levels of nutrition, poorer access to adequate, healthy food and requisite healthcare, and greater financial dependence on the family (Bal Sansar Sanstha (BSS), 2012) Nutritional status of women: The mean BMI for women aged between 15-49 in India is 20.5. More than one-third (36 percent) of women have a BMI below 18.5, indicating a high prevalence of nutritional deficiency.
These disadvantages have formed many gaps among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians that need to be readily fixed. Infant Mortality Infant mortality is defined by “the deaths of children less than one year of age” (Australian Bureau of Statistics, ABS, 2012). Evidence supported by Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW, 2011) suggest that “the life expectancy of ATSI children is double compared with their non-Indigenous counterparts (6.2 deaths per 1000 births ATSI children; 3.7 deaths per 1000 births non-Indigenous
This is especially discouraging considering that disposable diapers take about 250 to 500 years to decompose, meaning that it takes a lot more time for those diapers to be gone than it takes for the babies that used them to have great-grandchildren. According to “Cloth versus Disposable: The Diaper Facts,” disposable diapers are the third largest single product in landfills and make up about 4% of solid waste. In a house with a child that uses disposable diapers, this can make up about half of the total household waste. The Disposable Diaper Industry Source tried to approach this problem in 2000 when Absormex, a disposables company, launched the first biodegradable diaper in the world. The company claimed that the diaper would biodegrade 200% faster than regular diapers, and because of claims
Children at risk of dying every year due to zinc deficiency are about 450,000. Mild-to-moderate zinc deficiency may be relatively common worldwide, but the public health importance of this degree of zinc deficiency is not well defined. Zinc deficiency leaves the body incapable of fighting pneumonia and diarrhea. Child hood diarrhea especially is a key public health issue in many developing countries. Diarrhea claims the lives of approximately1.5 million children under the age of five every year– nearly one in five child deaths.
Depicting the Asian American community as the model-minority ignores the issue of poverty that persists within this ethnicity. In fact, “between 2007 and 2011, the number of Asian Americans living in poverty [in California] increased by roughly 50 percent, to over half a million. Hmong and Cambodian American children have higher rates of poverty (42 percent and 31 percent, respectively) than African American and Latino children (27 percent and 26 percent, respectively)”. Unfortunately, this trend extends out of California because “in recent years, Asian Americans in New York City plunged deeper into poverty and are now the poorest New Yorkers” (Lee 378). Although there is a higher percentage of the Asian American community who lives in poverty,
It is a matter of issue that a number of studies have attempted to address this subject. Here Table 2.5 revealed that the estimated unhealthy and poor growth status can differ when several kinds of growth standards are used. One recent study showed that the Bangladeshi children aged 0–12 months had higher prevalence of wasting than stunting by reference of CDC (2000) growth charts but on the other hand wasting less than stunting reference by WHO (2006) growth charts (Table xx). For that reason, the summarization (See Annex xx) of the main references and classifications are using to define overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. These findings are indicate significant differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity based on different references.
Because breastmilk takes on the flavor of foods eaten by the mother, these foods are especially good choices. [9 ] Nestlé's Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) of 2008 indicates that few American babies are fed baby food before the age of four months. Mother’s knowledge regarding complementary feeding time is inadequate and practices are inappropriate. Majority of them are not aware of the current recommendations and proper way of doing it. Correct information and guidelines about complementary feeding is not reaching the target population.
Child labor is a contested and global issue that affected mostly Africa, Asia-Pacific and Latin America. According to International Labor Organization (ILO-IPEC) (1996-2016a), a United Nations agency, the number of children in labour globally has declined since 2000 from 246 million to 168 million children; and although declining, around 85 million are still working in hazardous environment. However, the Asia-Pacific region has the largest number of child workers in the world and represents about 18.8 per cent of 650 million 5-14 year-olds in the region. Out from the statistics, the majority population of children in global context are still trapped in child labor, thus the higher rates of evolving into an adult with poor prospects of securing
It show single-mom families are more likely to be poor than single-dad families. Racism is one of the most serious social problems in the U.S. Because of racial inequality, many color children live in poverty. Today, about 30 percent families in the U.S. are families with color. The black population is about 14 percent of the U.S population. Nearly 1 in 3 black children live in families with low income under the poverty level, when non-Hispanic has the lowest child poverty rate which is 10 percent.
One of the countries who have low infant mortality rate is Cuba (David 2014). In United States, one of the explanation of the phenomena of high infant mortality is heterogeneous ethnic/ racial make-up of the population (David 2014). “Indeed, African American infants currently experience more than twice the risk of dying in their first year of life compared with White infants. (David
Using the multivariate logistic regression synthesis, it is clear that demographic and social predictors are behind disparities in seeking the services across the vast nation. The CDC abortion surveillance reports that in 2013, a total of 664,435 legal practiced abortions were recorded from their 49 reporting centers. The rate for the same year was 12.5 per 1000 women with the ages 15-44 years while the abortion rate at 200:1000 live births. The black women are 3.75 times more likely to terminate their pregnancy than their white counterparts. About 90% of the abortions occur in the first trimester.
The authors addressed the birth disparity outcomes between the African American and White population. They stated that racial discrimination interconnects with income disparities, poverty, cultural isolation, stress, etc., As a result of these factors the African Americans still have the highest rate of infant mortality in the nation, and the African American babies die before the first birthday twice the rate comparing to White babies. Greg, R., Alexander, Michael, D. Kogan, & Nabukera, S. (2000). Racial Differences in Prenatal Care Use in the United States: Are Disparities Decreasing? American Journal of Public Health December 2002: Vol.
Six decades after the country 's independence, and during the 21st century Female foeticide still continues in India. Women constitute half of the population in India, meaning half of the population has been deprived of its self-respect and subjugated into its grim existence. Infant mortality in India continues to remain higher than that of males. The percentage of girls enrolled in schools is 49% compared to 73% of boys, and the percentage of employed women has dropped from 71% to 41%. Crimes against women have also increased.