The bacterial plates also suggested that Ampicillin was ineffective in killing the bacteria, as zones of inhibition were not present, despite using two disks of this drug. These results could possibly be explained by the properties of these antibiotics and the bacteria used in the experiment. Bacterial enzymes, such as beta-lactamase, cannot be broken down by Ampicillin. The bacterial plasmid carrying this enzyme disables the Ampicillin placed in the agar, allowing for more bacterial growth. In this case, it is
1.) Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is a gram-positive bacterium that is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics such as Penicillin and Methicillin. CA-MRSA or Community Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus is found in the community and not associated with hospitals. This strain can potentially cause disease in healthy individuals by its infamous toxin, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin which causes necrosis of alveoli. CA-MRSA is commonly found among military recruits, athletic teams, correctional facilities, nurseries, and among men who have sex with men.
Vaccines are extremely controversial. Supporters view them as life-saving preventative measures, and opponents view them as unnecessary and unsafe medicines that can cause severe adverse reactions like autism and diabetes. Some also say that vaccines contain harmful ingredients. Studies show, though, that vaccines are in fact very safe. No link has been shown between vaccines and the adverse affects that adversaries claim to be caused by them.
This is because with certain organs and tissues becoming worn-out, there are no treatments to cure the problem (such as heart failure) or there are medications that can be used that will have unwanted side-effects with no significant results. (Mason and Dunnill, 2007) Due to this, a doctor should use regenerative medicine using stem cells because it will significantly help the life of a patient and the doctor will be abiding by the Hippocratic Oath which ultimately states all the reasons and ethics physicians have to have become a doctor
Thimerosal is an organomercury compound primarily used in vaccines and antiseptic medications.Thimerosal’s oligodynamic effect is how the chemical prevents the growth of bacteria at a wound site, and prevents bacterial contamination when doses are drawn from a multidose vial. The structure of the chemical features two ligands (the thiolate and the ethyl group) attached to a Hg atom. The chemical has become the subject of much controversy after many media platforms have given a voice to the anti-vaxxer movement, which demands that the compound be placed on the national banned chemical list by the DPS (Department of Public Safety), due to fears of Thimerosal causing autism and other brain development disorders . This document was written
As shown in the graph below there is an overlap between the 2 error bars which mean there is no significance difference between the treatments. Conclusion: The objective of the experiment was to determine if hand sanitizer inhibit the growth of the bacteria and to see if it is effectively kills bacteria. Based on the experiment, it was determined that hand sanitizer does not prevent bacterial growth. When the hypothesis test was performed, the 2 error bars do overlap, which means that the H˳ failed to reject and there is no significant difference between the 2 treatments, which means that the population of the treatments could be the same because they contain some of the range of numbers. The result only partially proved that the hypothesis fail to reject that hand sanitizers does not prevent bacterial growth.
2.0 Critical evaluation: 2. 1-Ethics and bioethics: 2.1.1Personal life: In certain sense every medical procedure is experimental. Administering and antibiotic for example to see if it will lower a fever or doing a barium X-Ray to determine the condition of the stomach or intestines is experimental because the outcome is not absolutely certain. All the same, most commonly used procedures have been well tested and established so we can be fairly certain of their results. They are therapeutic rather than experimental even though there is always the possibility that they will not work on this particular case or will be harmful to this particular patient.
The maggots will not become flies in the wound because they will not be on the wound long enough to become flies (Ronald A. Sherman, 2014). Assuring patients of the success of maggot therapy is essential. In conclusion, Dr. Baer’s work will not be in vain. Due to drug resistant bacteria, maggot therapy is reemerging for wound care usage. They have a 100 year old history, but maggots are a secret weapon for making wounds healable.
The EPA tries hard to keep us safe from death by pesticides and such. The pros, however, are that we are kept safe. Another is that they have a registration for pesticides and if that pesticide doesn 't meet the EPA 's requirements, the EPA will discontinue that pesticide, even if it was previously registered. However, a con that I think pesticide regulations has is that it doesn 't seem to put livestock into consideration. "Arsenic damages small blood vessels, which affects the blood supply, to major organs.
The second is much less advanced: prenatal screening. This is done to fetuses in order to select only a portion of the available genes. Both methods have their pros and cons, but neither are absolutely perfect. Clearly, the risks are outstandingly high. However, against all odds, there are no apparent physical or mental effects on the child before, during, and after growth and puberty.
These programs can also benefit individual patients by improving clinical outcomes (Bebell and Muiruz 2014). Currently, patients infected by superbugs are treated either by radical surgery which may lead to amputation, or intense use of strong antibiotics which can cause many unwanted side effects (e.g. liver damage, diarrhoea, allergic reaction). Also pharmaceutical companies are not likely to invest in new drugs for superbugs as this has little financial profit for the companies making the creation of newly developed antibiotics with fewer side effects almost impossible (Pogson 2012). However, if the spread of superbugs is controlled by the AMS programs, no new drugs are needed and less aggressive treatments can be used for such bacterial infections.
Thomas Levy, a cardiologist and author, states that, contrary to the popular opinion, an intake of greater than necessary amount of calcium supplementation and dairy products cannot protect your teeth. In fact, this intake may cause some chronic degenerative diseases. According to Levy, the unnecessary supplementation of calcium can lead to a premature death because it creates toxic environments in your body. Although the link between the risk of a terminal illness and a root canal is still debatable, you may consider avoiding root canals, or removing the tooth if you have one, and an unnecessary intake of calcium in order to prevent any chronic degenerative