Theories Of Double Contingency

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achieves the set goals, the system is maintained. Yet conforming to Luhmann 's theorem on double contingency, whether the system is established depends priorly on the reactions of the participants, and the "self-interest" after ward. Rather than caring about oneself 's welfare, Luhmann shows his positive attitude toward this matter, that one should consider the colleague 's response and act correspondingly during their communication. The next question arises around the solution for the problem of double contingency. As mentioned above, when the social system emerges, the communication and double contingency continues and reproduces, and the mechanism allows it is called "self-referential". Luhmann defined this term via an example "A is determined…show more content…
Luhmann described the communication between ego and alter with the presence of alter ego, the intermediate character "If an ego experiences an alter as alter ego and acts in…show more content…
Firstly, as detailed above, the notion of double contingency according to the two scholars are unalike. Secondly, concerning the problem of double contingency 's solution, Parsons said it is the norms and values of a "shared symbolic system", in contrast, it is communication as Luhmann 's point of view. In detail, as stated by Parsons, when it comes to double contingency, regardless whatever the ego and alter may act, they are restricted within set common rules which on the one hand limit the alternatives that ego choose from psychically and morally, one the other hand allow the social systems to reproduce and catalyse without too much effort of the participants. However, Luhmann conceived that only communication can be the comprehensive solution to the problem. Instead of being controlled by social factors, the participants themselves proactively reciprocally en masse "whiteness" the "black boxes" and reduce the contingency, "etsi no daretur Deus" [even if God doesn 't exist]. 2. Double contingency in real life 2.1. Prisoner 's dilemma The prisoner 's dilemma is a theory of game about two individuals who lack information of the other but share the same situation and basic history. It was introduced by Merrill Flood and Melvin Dresher in 1950 and developed by Albert W. Tucker in 1992. The
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