Universal Sociological Theory

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For Luhmann, a theory of society refers to a sociology theory which is able to account for all societal phenomena. Luhmann thought sociology is influenced by theory crisis. Empirical research’s, though it has been successful in increasing knowledge, has not been able to produce a unified theory for the discipline. Luhmann tried to revitalize the idea of a universal sociological theory, which would allow sociology to describe modern society more precise in all its dimensions. Luhmann believed that sociology could progress with a new grand theory, theoretical edifice. Observing systems 1. Draw a distinction A distinction is drawn by arranging a boundary with separate sides .A point on one side cannot reach the other side without crossing…show more content…
Second order-observation is also a first-order observation in the sense that it draws a distinction and indicates one and not the other side. On the level of second-order observation, one can thus see everything;what the observed observer sees, and what the observer does not see. Only one thing is necessarily excluded: the observation that is actualized that in the every moment of observing, its functioning as a first-order observation. One of Luhmann’s reasons for giving priority to second-order observations is that it offers a way of handling the problem of the blind spot which inherent to any observation. When somebody draws a distinction and indicates the one and not the other side, it is only the indicated side which is apparent to the observer. The form of the distinction constitutes a blind spot for the observer. In the moment something is observed, the observer is not able to see what form of distinction he or she employs. Yet this first form of distinction may be observed in a new observation, which, however, produces a new blind spot that can be observed in a new observation, and so…show more content…
Luhmann’s epistemology is founded on input frome both the autopoietic turn and difference-theoretical turn. Luhmann makes resource to the system/environment distinction to answer the question “How is knowledge?”. He argues that the knowledge of the social world is possible only through distinctions made by systems that separate themselves from their environment. Knowledge is only possible because the system has no direct access to its environment. A system needs the boundary to its environment in order to be able to observe
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