It is essential to understanding the social constructivist theory that you understand Gergen’s view of the subject. Gergen supports a form of social constructivism referred to as social constructionism. This theory is very similar to the social constructivist theory on how people create knowledge One problem that Gergen identifies is the problem of knowing other minds (1995). This is essential to his theory, because like social constructivism, social constructionism requires two separate actors. Gergen (1995) suggest, “that the contents of these minds are expressed in words and actions, how are we to determine what internal states these words and actions are attempting to express?
Returning to sociology in later years, Seidman appears to have come to terms with the discipline of sociology, adopting a relativist stance. He aims to integrate a classic universalist theoretical past with a contemporary autonomous interdisciplinary present. Seidman appeals for a public sociology, in that social (or situated) knowledge should be a moral and political enterprise that makes a difference to our lives, and “to be part of the ongoing conversation and conflict over the present and future shape of the social world”. “A will to make a better world” is a very noble aim, and perhaps a futile one, but the sheer optimism of this does/might lure in a sociological newcomer. Contested Knowledge is divided
In an attempt to understand how science evolves, Thomas Kuhn proposed the idea that in a particular scientific discipline and in a specific time period there exist a leading paradigm. This was in response to the commonly held belief that science evolves in a cumulative manner. In addition, George Ritzer uses Khun’s theory as background in order to make the social world easier to understand. He believed that Sociology is a multiple paradigm science, which embodied three major paradigms. Namely, the social facts, the social definition and the social behaviour paradigms, but he found that these paradigms were too one sided in their approach.
Theory first saw its development as a mere sociological theory that intended to better explain social patterns, such as values and ideals, as well as its development over time. Due to the lack of explanatory contextualization in previous research, this section is dedicated to deepen the reader’s understanding over the theory and how it evolved over time. Further research may be drawn from this point onwards, to why the theory is still today more of an explanatory nature, rather than exploratory. The formulation of a possible generational gap was firstly mentioned by Mentré (1920), in his book Les Generations Sociales. The author tries to understand the social and intellectual differences that structure society into patterns over a certain amount of time.
The structural functionalism, since the middle of the 1960th has lost the value. There were modern sociological theories. We will consider two of them. Theory of systems. The most outstanding theorist of systems in sociology — Niklas Luman.
Introduction Theories are set of statements that seek to provide a logical explanation for how a particular phenomenon works (Ogunbameru, 2013). In sociology, theories attempt to explain human interaction and the consequences of such interactions on social life as a whole. Thus, in pursuit of this goal, sociologists come up with varying theoretical approaches in order to provide an objective explanation of the social phenomenon under study. The theoretical approaches employed by sociologists are generally categorised into three namely: micro theory, macro theory and meso theory. Micro sociological theories adopt a social process approach to the explanation of their phenomenon.
“Knowledge within a discipline develops according to the principles of natural selection.” How useful is this metaphor? “It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” - Charles Darwin Charles Darwin, the father of the evolutionary theory, along with Alfred Wallace, a fellow naturalist, produced a joint publication introducing the world to a phenomenon that is applicable not only to the living species of the planet, but also every aspect of growth, knowledge and lifestyles throughout history- the theory of evolution and natural selection. Darwin stated that natural selection is a process through which organisms and species adapt to their environment. Through natural
Linking theory to practice. From above, the consolidate the evidence that every child is different, therefore social workers use this idea to work with every child differently. This would prevent incorrect assumption during child development assessment. it would help us in explaining situations in a way that is comprehensible to the child we are working with, because children do not think and understand like an adult. Vygotsky (1962, cited in Wilson et al., 2011) explained in his theory of sociocultural theory by arguing that, children build knowledge through social and cultural experiences.
His theories were found on the concept of social facts, defined as the norms, values and structure of the society. This perspective of the society differed from other sociologist of his era as his theories were found on things external in nature, as opposed to those internal in nature such as motivations and desires of individuals. According to Durkheim, collective consciousness, values and rules are critical to a functional society. Throughout his career, Durkheim was concerned primarily
The assumption of what people say or write have nothing to do with where they form, was broken few decades ago. The theory of social semiotics, which focuses on the relationship between the linguistics system and the social structure, was first proposed by Michael Halliday, a linguistic theorist, in 1978. In his book Language as a Social Semiotic, he stated his objection of the traditional separation between language and society; they are closing related. Then, he put forward that language function varies according to different social context. At the same time, unique forms of language usage can be developed in different situations.