The Spine: Composed of 33 vertebrae, the spine consists of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 fused sacral and 4 fused coccygeal vertebrae. The width of the vertebral bodies generally increases craniocaudally, except at T1-T3. The normal curve of spine includes: 1. Cervical lordosis (20-400) 2. Thoracic kyphosis (20-400), 3.
Gliding joints allows two or more flat or slightly rounded bones to move easily together without friction or grinding. The function of a gliding joint is to allow motions such as smooth sliding of bone past bone, bending, stretching and circular motion. Examples of gliding joints include the forearm to wrist arm and lower leg to ankle joint. Pivot joint is a synovial joint designed with one end fitting like a cylinder like a ring. Pivot joints at the base of the skull and allows the head to rotate.
The capsule of the elbow joint and the annular ligament stabilize the bones proximally. Distally, the bones are connected by a wrist capsule, radio-ulnar stabilizing ligaments (dorsal and volar) and a fibrocartilage articular disk (triangular fibrocartilage compex, TFCC) (). There is an interosseus membrane
The menisci improve congruency between the femoral and condyles of tibia during this movement.27 Figure 8: Articular surfaces of knee joint (A- In extension, B- In flexion). EXTRACAPSULAR LIGAMENTS The ligamentum patellae is attached to the lower border of the patella superiorly and to the tibia tuberosity inferiorly. It is continuation of the central portion of the quadriceps femoris tendon.28 The cordlike lateral collateral ligament is attached superiorly to the lateral condyle of the femur and inferiorly to the head of the fibula. The tendon of the popliteus muscle is present between the lateral collateral ligament and the lateral meniscus.28 The medial collateral ligament is a flat band attached superiorly to the medial femoral condyle and inferiorly to the tibia shaft. It is also attached to the border of the medial meniscus.28 The oblique popliteal ligament is a tendon arising from the semimembranosus muscle.
Where medial plantar nerve is associated with flexor hallucis brevis. Deep branch of lateral plantar nerve is associated with adductor halluces muscle and superfacial branch is associated with digiti minimi brevis muscle. Fourth Layer The fourth layer of intrinsic muscles is made with the plantar and dorsal interossei muscles. These two muscles work differently. The plantar interossei made with unipennate morphology and dorsal interossei made with bipennate.
The hip joint is the attachment between the hind limb and the axial skeleton. The pelvis girdle consists of two identical hipbones that ventrally meet at the pelvic symphysis. Dorsally they articulate with the sacrum. Each hipbone consists of the ilium, pubis and ischium that have different ossification centers. In adults, these bones are completely fused and their bodies form the cavity for the articulation with the femur, the acetabulum (8).
Introduction: The sciatic nerve is the largest and thickest nerve in the human body, formed by anterior rami of L 4, 5, S 1, 2, 3 spinal segments. It is made up of two components, the common peroneal and tibial nerves, which are held together by the connective tissue sheath. It enters the gluteal region through the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis muscle, descends on the back of thigh and usually divides into its terminal branches at the apex of popliteal fossa1. Variations in different level of terminal division of sciatic nerve and its relations with piriformis muscle have been reported. The variations in the course of sciatic nerve may lead to clinical condition like sciatica, piriformis syndrome and coccygodynia.
All That You Need To Know About Neck Pain The cervical spine (neck) is made up of vertebrae which extend from the skull to the upper torso. The cervical disks take in shock between the bones. The muscles, ligaments, and bones of your neck hold your head in position and allows motion. Any injury, inflammation, and abnormalities can lead to stiffness or neck pain. Many individuals experience stiffness or neck pain in the neck regularly.
The structure of intertebral disc is complex. Nucleus pulposus has a well organized matrix which is laid down by relatively few cells. Nucleus pulposus is a gelatinous structure present in the centre and is contained in the periphery by annulus which is collagenous and cartilaginous, and two cartilaginous endplates cephalad and caudad. Collagen fibers from annulus continue and attach to the surrounding tissues, tying into the vertebral body along its rim, cartilaginous endplates superiorly and inferiorly and anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments. Bony endplate and cartilaginous endplates were connected by calcified cartilage.
INTRODUCTION Muscle tissue is one of the four primary tissue types consisting elongated muscle cells that are highly specialized for carrying out certain responsibilities. Muscles are responsible for movement of different parts of the body; posture; respiration; production of body heat; communication; constriction of organs and vessels and contraction of heart. General properties of muscles: Contractility is the ability of muscle to shorten forcefully although its shorten forcefully, it lengthens passively. Excitability is the capacity of muscle to respond to a stimulus. Often the stimulus is from the nerves that we consciously control.