Respiration consists of transportation of oxygen from the atmosphere to the body tissues and the release and carriage of carbon dioxide formed in the tissues to the atmosphere. The human respiratory system is a series of organs responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide. We can list the primary organs of the respiratory system as nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs which carry out this exchange of gases as we breathe. During inspiration air passes through respiratory passages due to the pressure differences formed in chest and trunk muscles. The ‘respiratory tract’ consists of these passageways and the lungs.
Another category is gases and many are found in household or commercial products like butane lighters, propane tanks, and whipped cream aerosols. Other examples include products that are used for anesthesia or putting patients to sleep for surgery. They are called ether, chloroform, and nitrous oxide. The last category is called nitrites and are prescription medications for chest pain. This can often be found in room odorizer, leather cleaner, and liquid
Ventilation/perfusion scans: Ventilation/perfusion scans, sometimes called a VQ (V=Ventilation, Q=perfusion) scan, is a way of identifying mismatched areas of blood and air supply to the lungs. It is primarily used to detect a pulmonary embolus. The perfusion part of the study uses a radioisotope tagged to the blood which shows where in the lungs the blood is perfusing. If the scan shows up any area missing a supply on the scans this means there is a blockage which is not allowing the blood to perfuse that part of the organ. Myocardial perfusion imaging: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a form of functional cardiac imaging, used for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease.
"Radiology is a medical specialty that uses imaging to diagnose and treat diseases seen within the body. Radiologists use many imaging techniques including: X-ray radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography, nuclear medicine including positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose and treat diseases." Some of the experiments they do include testing X-ray dark-field radiography on a living organism for the first time. They test the organism for lung disease. X-Ray dark-field radiography produces very detailed imagines of the lung.
ABSTRACT This paper present the medical diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy use different methods used around GCC(gulf cooperation council) countries like florescence angiography(FA), color fundus retinal photography(CFRP), slit light exam, optical coherence tomography(OCT), ultrasound test which also further incorporates the improvement and the drawback of the diagnostic method used. Index- Diabetic retinopathy, Diagnosis, improvement Diabetic retinopathy(DR) is a complication in which eyes are affected due to diabetes. It is a progressive condition in which retina (the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye) is damaged. There are two types of DR which are: Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and Proliferative
This is what many doctors call “flesh and blood decision making” (page 6). The “fast and frugal” part of the thinking, where your actions work ahead of your thoughts, are the core of flesh and blood decision making. Dr. Groopman explains how snap judgment is not taught, but is developed in the moment, right when a new doctor steps onto the medical floor. He says, “[snap judgments and thin slicing] serve as the foundation of all mature medical thinking, it can save lives…” (page 7). Thin slicing and snap judgements cannot be taught in medical school, it is more like a reflex a doctor develops with more experience.
Introduction The Endoctracheal suctioning is the process of removing mucus in a patient’s body, this requires the insertion of a catherer to remove the secretion from the artificial airway. A suction device is used to pressure and trap the mucus in a vacuum so as to maintain the patient’s comfort airway passage. Endotracheal suctioning is often performed process in most hospitals and clinics, although there are associated complications and risks such as hypoxia, mucosal harm and cardiac dysrhythmias are usually associated with the endoctracheal suctioning process especially if not performed correctly. There is also an adverse effect to patients, such stress or anxiety, therefore It can be a high risk procedure that must be done correctly and
The signs and symptoms of COPD include shortness of breath, chronic cough, fatigue and having bluish lips and nail beds (American Lung Association, 2014). The second vital human body system is cardiovascular system (CVS). CVS plays an integral role in enhancing and facilitating the proper function of heart in order to allow the body to function as a whole. CVS comprises of two components namely heart and blood vessels. Heart is a four-chambered muscular pumping organ that divides into atriums and ventricles that are separated by valves to prevent backflow of blood among the compartments (Smeltzer, Bare, Hinkle, & Cheever, 2010).
I have realised that some positions are harder to breathe in, thus I assumed that different body positions can affect my lung capacity. This is why I decided to investigate the effect of different body positions on lung capacity. The forced vital capacity (FVC) is a pulmonary function measure often used for this purpose and is defined as the maximum volume of air exhaled from after maximum inspiration (Martinez, BP, et al, 2015), which was the measure used in this
The act of breathing is achieved by 4 process as following: 1- Pulmonary ventilation: Pulmonary ventilation is defined as the act of moving air into and out of the lungs in order to achieve inhalation and exhalation. However negative pressure system and muscles contraction are used by our respiratory system to allow the air to flow in and out of the body. Negative pressure system function is to make the pressure of the alveoli lower than the atmosphere pressure, this can be achieved by the assistance of the pleural membrane, where pleural membrane impresses the lungs when they are at rest, as a result the air will flow into the lunges in order to rise up the lunges pressure until it matches the atmosphere pressure, at this point the diaphragm will contract and more air can be inhaled, meanwhile the contraction of external intercostal muscle will cause an increment in the thorax volume, so as a feedback the lungs pressure will go lower than the atmosphere pressure
The trade names are Proventil, Ventolin, and Volmax. Indication(s): It is appropriate to administer albuterol to a patient who exhibits signs and symptoms of a respiratory emergency, who has a physician-prescribed inhaler, and with the specific authorization from medical direction to use it. Effects: Albuterol is used as a bronchodilator, which means it enlarges the patient’s respiratory passages to make breathing easier for a patient experiencing respiratory difficulty.
Followed by the application of 12 lead electro cardiogram (ECG). It is important to determine whether it is cardiogenic or non-cardiogenic by doing primary and secondary survey. Glycerol trinitrate (vasodilator) to draw the fluid out of the lungs, aspirin (antiplatelet) to prevent or reduce platelet aggregation and flusemide (loop diuretic) that promotes the secretion of sodium and water are administered when a patient has cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. Whether the patient has cardiogenic or non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema the following procedures will apply, IPPV (Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation), PEEP (Positive end –expiratory pressure) and CPAP (Continuous positive airway pressure. Transport immediately to the nearest hospital and reassess every five minutes (Mursell,
CARDITIS The inflammation of muscle tissue in the heart is called Carditis, and these inflammation is arranged into three different types of categories depending on the location of the inflammation. These different type of inflammation are known as Endocarditis, Myocarditis, and Pericarditis. Within the three categories they all have similar diagnosis and similar formulas in diagnosing the inflammation. Carditis are to be indicated as the inflammation of the heart muscle and Pancarditis is to be presented as the inflammation of the whole heart. Endocarditis The inflammation of the interior heart tissue or the endocardium is known as Endocarditis.
Spirometry is used diagnose conditions that affect breathing such as asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, and cystic fibrosis. Spirometry is used periodically to assess whether breathing problems are under control and how well your medications are working. A nebulizer
In my facility, the safety of our patients is our top priority. We use a set of interventions using clinical indications to ensure the safety of patients with indwelling catheters. These indications are strict intake and output (I&O), patients monitored for acute renal insufficiency or failure, sedated patients with critical illness, and neurological patients monitored for syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) or diabetes insipidus. Patients suffering from acute urinary retention, or bladder outlet obstruction with the inability to void, as well as select surgical patients, are also indicated. Indwelling catheters are also used in assisting the healing of open sacral or perineal wounds in incontinent patients with a stage III or IV pressure ulcer on the coccyx or sacrum.